Sunday, April 28, 2019

Bayonne Bridge over Kill Van Kull at Staten Island, NYC, NY

(Bridge Hunter; Historic Bridges; HAER3D Satellite, 213+ photos)

Photo from HAER NJ,9-BAYO,1-11 from nj1025

BAYONNE BRIDGE, FROM OVER STATEN ISLAND LOOKING NORTH - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

Nathan Holth on his Historic Bridges page complained about the lack of documentation for the new bridge. I share his frustration. Normally for a new bridge, you can find proposed alternatives, concept illustrations, environmental impact statements, and/or materials for public presentations. The only concept illustration I could find is this little one on their About page. Traffic had to use two lanes instead of four lanes during the six years of construction, but they were able to get rid of the lower roadway under the arch by 2017 to make room for New Panamax ships.
The deck on this bridge has been raised 64' to allow super-panmax ships to access container terminals on the other side. They are also having to dredge a deeper channel, 51'-57' depending on the stage of the tide. The 2000' wide Ambrose Channel starts twelve miles out in the ocean. It was built in 1931 with a clearance of 151'. In the mid 20th Century, the Port Authority predicted that the superstructure of ships in the future would top 190'. Pieces of the roadway over the water were removed by lowering them onto barges. The new channel was tested with a new container ship, CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, that is 1200'x158'x52.5' and can hold 14,414 containers. The previous maximum capacity was 9,400 containers. That ship stopped at other east coast ports before it docked at NYC. That would reduce its draft to below 51'. In fact, it was just 40.85'. This ship went under the Bayonne Bridge on Sept. 7, 2017. The wheelhouse on this ship was at the same height as the old roadway. "According to Port Authority statistics from a few years ago, seven million vehicles cross the Bayonne every year. About a hundred and three million vehicles use the George Washington." The bridge won't be finished until 2019. [NewYorker, pay count of 4. Some of the article talks about how dangerous the Kill Van Kull strait is to navigate because of tides coming in from both sides and a sharp turn in the shipping channel. The article also discusses Ammann, who was the designer of this and several other major bridges, and the harbor and sea pilots.]
Port of  NY Authority via Historic Bridges, p29
The Kill Van Kull is one of the world's busiest shipping channels, connecting the ports of Newark and Upper New York bays with other ports around the world.
[The ship is headed east out to sea, and we see Manhattan Island in the left background.]

Port of  NY Authority via Historic Bridges, p13

Port of  NY Authority via Historic Bridges, p7
[I included this image because it helps put in perspective the immense scale of the bridge.]

Second Progress Report via Historic Bridges, p13
[Look at the list of the derrick boat.]

Second Progress Report via Historic Bridges, p16, rotated
[This shows the temporary piers or falsework and the temporary support above the second pier so that they can cantilever the remainder of the arch and avoid putting a pier in the navigation channel.]
Second Progress Report via Historic Bridges, p20
[I didn't realize that the navigation channel was so far off-center until I saw this image.]
Dedication via Historic Bridges, p7
[Given the stone encasement of the abutments, this is obviously a concept illustration. Like the towers of his George Washington Bridge, Ammann obviously intended for the steel work to be covered by stonework. But the depression happened before the bridges were completed, so the stone work, which was purely decorative, was skipped. Some people have argued that the raw strength of the towers looks better without a stone facade.]

A street view catches the original steel girder approach spans and the new precast segmented partial approach spans. Before they can finish the new piers and approach spans, they need to remove the old roadway. After the second part of the new piers are built, they can remove the yellow pipes.
Street View

3D Satellite
[I saved an image because this catches the phase where the new deck is full width, but the approaches can't be finished because the old deck still exists.]
Since it is supposed to be finished this year (2019), I really don't need a concept illustration because the web cam shows what it is supposed to look like. Evidently, it is still not done because their web page indicates the pedestrian walkway is closed, and it is still displaying Nov 4, 2013, truck restrictions due to the construction.
Web Cam, accessed Apr 28, 2019

(new window)  Among other things, this video animates how a travelling gantry installs the precast segments for the new approach spans.

(new window)

This container terminal doesn't care about the height of the Bayonne Bridge. But these are the terminals I found that do care: New York Container Terminal, APM Terminals (can handle ships in both Newark Bay and Elizabeth Channel), and Port Elizabeth Terminal Corporation.

While looking for container terminals, I found these two RoRos (Roll-On, Roll-Off) in dock. Since I've never seen one with their ramp out, I wanted to capture this image.
Toyota Logistics Services

[The lanes are widened from 10' to 12' and a median barrier plus two 5' shoulders are added. By keeping the construction within the current footprint, they reduced the environment planning phase from four years to eight months.]
And they did not displace residential homes that were within 20' of the work site. [RoadsBridges-2018]

With additional weight on the structure and increased wind loads, the team added more than 4,000 tons of steel plates to strengthen the arch....More than 100,000 rivets were replaced with high-strength bolts as part of the strengthening process.

The $1.6B project finished around Jun 30, 2017, which was 6 months ahead of schedule. It raised the clearance from 151' to 215'.

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