Sunday, October 30, 2016

Tie Rod Anchor Plates on Brick Buildings

20151212 7473
I found this building being remodeled on Goose Island. It is the first building I have seen in Chicago that has tie rod anchor plates. In fact, it has two different types.

It has big ones in vertical columns and little ones near the top along the roof line. The little ones help fasten little rods in the wood beams of the roof to the brick wall to hold up the roof. These are further described below.

I believe the vertical tie plates terminate tie rods that run completely through the brick walls inside the building. This helps hold in the outer walls and provide reinforcement for the interior walls.
Tsongas Industrial History Center posted
For those following our #MillYardMonday posts, sorry we missed one yesterday! Today is Tuesday, but it's the perfect time to learn about tie rods. You may have noticed the black metal knobs that dot the sides of mill buildings at evenly spaced intervals. These knobs are actually the protruding ends of objects called tie rods. The rods were used to secure floor support beams to the mill walls. Builders attached the rods to the beams and then pushed them through the wall, securing them to the outside in a way similar to using nuts and bolts. By attaching the tie rods this way, builders essentially anchored the floor beams to the walls. Eventually this building method was used less often as some believed that, in mill fires, tie rods actually caused more damage to the building. If the wooden floor beams sagged, snapped, or burned, it was likely they would pull down the walls with them since they were attached by the rods. The decision to stop using tie rods in construction made it more likely that the walls of a mill would remain standing after a fire, even if all the floor beams burned away.
In this image of the Boott Mill you can look to the left and see the ends of tie rods scattered across the building. This continues along the whole length of the structure as well as on the opposite side of the mill!
Note the tie plates in these mills run horizontally along the floor lines. The Chicago building must have been built after this lesson was learned and only the roof is tied into the outer walls. They switched to rods through the walls to help hold the outer walls from buckling outwards.

I first saw tie plates in a building in a small town in Illinois. (After a lot of searching in my picture folders, I discovered it was in Indiana.) Of course, I can't remember which town that was. I had gotten out to take pictures of railroad structures along a north/south railroad when I spotted it across the street. These are some of the buildings I came across while looking for the building I wanted to find.

In this building the tie rods with their plates seem to have been used for repairs. Note the cluster on the corner between the second and third floor. There is also a vertical set of tie plates in the lower-right corner.

(20141017 0061, Streetview)
The IC Depot in Mattoon, IL.

(20150730 3695)

One of the back shop buildings in IC's Paducah's shops has plates along the left side and along the bottom of the end wall. In this case, there is probably something heavy on the inside that has been mounted to the wall, and the mount needed the extra strength of a tie rod and plate.

(20150930 4965)

In North Baltimore, OH, I was taking a picture of the 1892 cut stone building, but I notice the building to the right has a couple of tie rod plates by the window.

But looking at a Streetview, they must be for a repair job rather than for the original construction.

(20151101 5239)

A block to the west is an old industrial building. (Unfortunately, it is currently vacant and for sale. I hope a developer can reuse it as an antique shop, wedding reception hall, or whatever building depending on the layout of the interior. People near Chicago have weddings in Streator, IL, even if some of the guests have to stay in Peru or Ottawa, IL because an industrial building was converted to a (relatively) reasonably priced "event center.") This view is looking to the northwest across the CSX/B&O mainline through town.

In this view of the east side, I see some tie plates that were used for repair ---- three horizontal ones on the right and at least two vertical ones on the left. (There may be more vertical ones behind the tree.)

(20151101 5230 and 5241)

A side building of the Tampa Bay depot has a few along the top. The foreground is one of the platforms and its shelter.

(20151225 7772) (I spent Christmas Day driving around Tamp Bay because traffic would be light and because I had been to Busch Gardens the previous year.)
These two buildings in Newburgh, IN, have two types of plates. The one on the left has a couple of the typical star plates. The one on the right has six, green "daisy flower" plates.

(20140811 0493)  Streetview

Bingo. This is the building I had in mind. This is the first one I noticed with tie rod plates on the side. And this appears to be the bad design described by the Tsongas Industrial Historical Center comment above where the floor and roof beams are tied into the walls.

(20141108 0183) Streetview
The middle of the hydro-electric plant in Marseilles, IL, has two rows of tie plates along the top. But in this case I think it is to mount something heavy on the inside of the building.

(20140627 0056) Streetview
Attribution: Oosoom, CC BY_SA 3.0
Tie rods and anchor plates in the ruins of Coventry Cathedral
Tie rods have good tensile strength and bad compression strength whereas masonry has good compression strength and bad tensile strength. Like reinforced concrete, they can be used together to produce a much stronger building.

I have a lot more pictures of brick buildings. But they were just a brick facade over a steel frame (effectively short skyscrapers). The brick in these older buildings with tie rods are probably load bearing walls built in the 1800s and early 1900s, and the rods are the only steel (wrought iron if old enough) in the structure. I assume that if tie rods were not used, more courses of brick would be needed in the walls to withstand lateral loads such as wind load. I wonder how well masonry buildings with tie rods survive earthquakes. (Masonry buildngs without tie rods don't survive.)

An 18-page .pdf sounded interesting, but when I clicked the "Download button," it asked for private information. A 201-page .pdf is more information than I'm willing to look at. I skimmed an 8-page .pdf and noticed that vertical ties are more effective at resisting earthquakes than horizontal ties.

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Junction Tower: CFER/CSX/PRR vs Aban/CR/NYC/MC (Joliet Cutoff) in Liverpool, IN

Wayne Hudak posted three pictures concerning Liverpool, IN, with the comment:
A pair of former Reading RR units lead an eastbound freight at the small hamlet of Liverpool in Northwest Indiana. They have just crossed the former Michigan Central Joliet Cutoff. At one time there was a tower there.



CGW Hoffman Bridge over Mississippi River in St. Paul, MN

(Bridge Hunter, Historic BridgesJohn Weeks III, 3D Satellite)
John Weeks IIII
This photo is "from early summer of 2011 when the Mississippi River was at a high water level. The photo above shows the main swing span and the truss span on the east side of the river crossing.
John Weeks IIII
The photo above is a 2007 view from the regional trail overpass that crosses over Concord Street. The trees have been removed, but cap has not yet been placed on the landfill. The photo below is a view of the bridge from Mounds Park. This view looks across the downtown Saint Paul Holman Field airport. Notice the dense grove of trees on the right side of the river. Those are the trees that were cut as part of the landfill restoration project.

Jordan Palmer posted
Thanks much for the add! Here is a shot I captured last summer of the former CGW Swingbridge over the Mississippi in St. Paul, Minnesota, still used numerous times every day by the Union Pacific.David Kelzenberg This bridge is indeed at St. Paul. It is downstream from the former CGW lift bridge downtown, which is under the Robert St. (US 52) bridge. THIS bridge connects the former CGW line from the south to the UP yard by Pigs Eye lake (and the big CP former Milw. yard).
Kirk Brust commented on the above posting
Hope this helps...
[It sure did, I "liked" it.]
3D Satellite

Friday, October 28, 2016

Big4: Big Four Timetable including Map

Big Four is the nickname for the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway

Big Four was controlled by NYC and eventually owned by NYC.

History by Classic Streamliners
Brian Carson posted

Bill Edrington posted four pictures with the comment:
Excerpts from an 1895 Big Four public timetable, including schedules of passenger trains between Indianapolis and St. Louis. The "Short Line" between Hillsboro and Lenox Tower (Mitchell) didn't open until 1904, so at this time all trains ran via Litchfield, Gillespie, Bunker Hill and East Alton on what later became known as the "Old Line". I grew up hearing stories about the "Knickerbocker" and the "Mattoon Accommodations" from my great uncle, who was born in Litchfield in 1888, and I have fond memories of trains on both the Old Line and the Short Line.
Bill Edrington The number of through trains on the Big Four was even more impressive from the 1920s through the early-to-mid-1950s, although the all-stops "accommodation trains" began to disappear fairly early because of competition from interurban lines and private automobiles.
Jacob Hortenstine Litchfield was once home to the Big Four car shops if memory serves me right was moved toMattoon after shortline nuilt
Bill Edrington The car shop was actually moved to Mattoon in 1871, after the Indianapolis & St. Louis had built its line from Indianapolis to Terre Haute, took over the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute, and established Mattoon as the crew change point roughly halfway between Indianapolis and St. Louis. David Settlemire bought the shop building in Litchfield and operated it as the Litchfield Car Works for a number of years, before shutting it down and moving the business to Mt. Vernon.

It always struck me that Big Four got the little railroads that NYC or PRR did not snarf up.

Note the Kankakee & Seneca route and their use of the IC tracks to access the Chicago market. This clearly shows the Egyptian Line from Cairo to Danville with continuation on NYC tracks to the Chicago market. And the little branch to Vincennes that has the Wabash Cannonball Bridge.
Bill Edrington posted
I've noticed that several members of this group have recently viewed some photos of the Big Four "Chicago East" line that I posted back in November 2017. Since that time, a group devoted specifically to the former Big Four lines has been formed and is very active. I'd encourage NYC fans who are interested in the Big Four to join: Fans of the New York Central's Big Four Lines.
[Unfortunately, the resolution of these maps is "almost readable." But you can see the routes.]

Thursday, October 27, 2016

PRR Bridges over Susquehanna River at Rockville, PA

1849: (Bridge Hunter)

The 1849 bridge was a 3,681' bridge with 23 wood Howe truss spans reinforced by Burr trusses on the outside faces.
The 1877 bridge appears to be made of iron.
The 1902 bridge is a stone arch bridge.

An album of construction pictures for the current stone arch bridge, the worlds longest. The comments are also interesting.

I start with a photo of  the current (1902) bridge as the signature photo of the post.
Jack Stoner posted his photo
A Norfolk Southern manifest rolls across the 1902 vintage Rockville bridge from Enola yard September 19,2015. At 3820 feet it remains the longest railroad viaduct of stone arch construction in the world. Not the first structure on the site; the bases for the piers of the 1849 structure owned by PRR and used by the Northern Central (trackage rights) after abandoning their Marysville bridge, can be seen from above the locomotive consist following to the west shore of the river.

Then we have images of the 1849 wooden bridge.
Paul W. Faust posted
The Rockville Bridge just north of Harrisburg, Pa. is the longest stone arch railroad bridge in the world - and this is the original first RR bridge that was in that location. Most of the piers are still standing next to current one.
This is looking from the west side of the river (Susquehanna) towards Rockville.

Paul either doctored his copy or found a better copy.
Paul W. Faust posted
The first Rockville Bridge, Harrisburg, Pa.
year unknown

A photo of the iron bridge that reused the old piers.
Via Bridge Hunter, Published prior to 1923

Larry Stultz posted
A little more history of the Rockville Bridge. The year of the photo and originator are on the picture. Enjoy.
3D Satellite
The line of "green dots" is the piers for the previous wooden and iron bridges.

Larry Stultz posted
The old Rockville bridge, near Harrisburg Pa., being dismantled now that the new bridge is in operation. Taken from the Rockville side of the river looking over toward Marysville, Enola. Enjoy.
Richard Colby What year would this have been taken?
Larry Stultz Richard Colby, new bridge was completed 1902 with the old bridge being removed shortly thereafter.
Steve Fermier Every so often pieces of the "new" bridge fall off. It may be soon a newer one will be necessary.
Kevin Morris That "new" bridge has seen better days, unfortunately. It's down to two tracks located pretty much in the middle. The outer edges are slowly failing.
The bridge has seen an unbelievable amount of traffic in its lifetime. And replacing it would be a monumental task.
Dan Cupper There were only three bridges:
--1849 wooden single track
--1877 iron double track
--1902 stone/concrete 4 tracks.
Keith Pomroy The Northern Central abandoned its own river bridge between Marysville and Dauphin and began using the Rockville bridge. Originally, there was no southeastern wye track off of Rockville Bridge into Enola, so N.C. traffic had to be dispatched out of the small Marysville Yard to the west of the bridge, and then back down across Rockville and then back up to Dauphin on the east shore. Or simply come up the east shore the whole way through the city of Harrisburg.
Keith Pomroy The wye from Enola onto the bridge was only built in 1939.
Matthew Sichel Longest stone arch railroad bridge in the world!

Larry Stultz posted five photos with the comment:
Progression of the PRR's Rockville Bridge spanning the Susquehanna River north of Harrisburg Pa. from the first one to cross to the present. First and last photos are from my files the others have no originator nor dates but appear to be from a booklet on the Rockville Bridge. Enjoy.






Alan Furler posted three photos with the comment:
When the Pennsylvania Railroad had a traffic surge and leased 9 Reading Class T-1 4-8-4s in 1956, my dad shot this series at the Rockville Bridge of RDG No. 2114 on a PRR freight crossing the Susquehanna River and heading into Enola. This was the last regular service for most of the leased T-1's. The original 35 mm Kodachrome slides are being archived in the Donald W. Furler collection at the
Center for Railroad Photography & Art
Very good photos as usual. Trying to figure where he as standing to take this set of photos. Suppose on the other leg of the wye, but it seems elevated. No matter, brings back the memories.
I'm not sure what he was standing on Bob, but he did climb signals and other structures for elevation. 
Dan Cupper
, my friend who wrote the definitive Rockville Bridge book, any ideas?
Alan Furler
 In those days of our more youthful thinking we did climb railroad equipment and structures to get those perfect photos that these days would never happen. Have a feeling your Dad climbed a signal mast. Won't tell anyone.
Yes, a signal bridge.
Raymond Storey shared


Leased Reading T-1 No. 2114 in 1956 on Pennsylvania Railroad freight heading to Enola Yard.
looks so different without trees
And according to my father who worked for the Reading bet the hell out of them. Most came back scrap ready.
Norfolk Southern Corp posted
Norfolk Southern offers transcontinental guaranteed service between the West Coast and both the Northeast and Southeast. Learn more about shipping with NS:
Pictured: as westbound train 21T departs Harrisburg Yard with over 12,000 ft of intermodal equipment, it meets train 22W crossing the Susquehanna River on Rockville Bridge.

Jack Stoner posted his photo
September 19, 2015 at 8:11am, NS eastbound Roadrailer eases across the venerable Rockville Bridge. According to reports from Norfolk Southern, this train may be but just a memory by the end of the year.

Jack Stoner posted his photo
A firey red sunrise illuminates a Norfolk Southern Intermodal train crossing the 3820 foot, 113 year old Rockville Bridge October 24, 2015. This dramatic lighting lasted only minutes and was gone. Lucky to get a train at just the right time!

Jack Stoner posted his photo
Frank Clement posted
I took this in 2008 from atop the north bluff of the Blue Mountain looking over the Rockville bridge with Amtrak crossing to enter Harrisburg.

Carl Venzke posted
Amtrak train 40, the eastbound Broadway Limited behind E9A 424, E8A 447 and E9A 438, looms out of the fog at the east end of Rockville Bridge, minutes away from it's station stop at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, 16 July 1978. Photo by Bill Wilcox.

Norfolk Southern Corp posted
Did you know that Norfolk Southern has 4,920 employees, 2,560 railroad retirees, and 2,400 miles of track operated in the Keystone State? #DYK#Pennsylvania
Pictured: Hopper train 595 crosses the massive Rockville Bridge across the Susquehanna River, departing Harrisburg, Pa., with the Illinois Terminal heritage unit leading.
Bill Mason Those rocks above the bridge is where I caught 32 small mouth bass in the 80's. Got to watch trains all day and caught a ton of fish... loved it!
Randolph Caruso Is that an Amtrak train heading east?

Norfolk Southern Corp posted
Train 35Q crosses the Lurgan Branch Bridge and the Susquehanna River.
David Andrew Wieting Next to the Lurgan Branch bridge are the remains of the unfinished bridge begun in 1885 by the South Penn RR, and the PRR Cumberland Valley Bridge, which was once part of the route to Hagerstown. It was also electrified in the 1930s and used as a way to ferry light engine moves between Enola and Harrisburg as needed, and the way that passenger trains from Baltimore approached Harrisburg after coming north on the old Northern Central.
David Andrew Wieting Lurgan Branch is kind of like NS' own RF&P - links North and South, using both PRR and Reading tracks, linked at Shippensburg. CSX still has rights into Harrisburg from Hagerstown, of a sort, but that is all that remains of the old Alphabet Route. Brothers Wayne and Bill Reid, of Indiana, I believe, have immortalized the route with their N scale Cumberland Valley RR, depicted both the PRR and Reading lines. It has been featured in numerous articles and on video. The former PRR section from CP SHIP south has been modernized almost beyond recognition, with signals and sidings that Conrail never got around to installing, as part of the Crescent Corridor improvements. But many landmarks remain, including some stations, masonry, old handrails, and bridges.
[I assume the Lurgan Branch Bridge is also the Rockville Bridge. What are the odds that NS would have two really long stone arch bridges with a dam in front and abandoned piers behind?]
Norfolk Sothern Corp posted
Pictured: Train 13r crosses the Rockville Bridge and the Susquehanna River in Marysville, Pennsylvania.
Art Kemberling The photo shows NS train crossing the Susquehanna river on the Rockville Bridge which happens to be the longest stone arch bridge in the world.
Ronnie Cathcart Nice to see that SD40-2 behind the lead engine chipping in with some power...nice!!
Zack Boone That SD40 looks so small.

Norfolk Southern Corp posted
Doug Koontz, a Norfolk Southern foreman, is no stranger to photography. Before joining the railroad six years ago, Koontz was a newspaper photojournalist in Maryland.
Near the end of a freezing winter day, Koontz happened to be near Fort Hunter Mansion and Park just north of downtown Harrisburg when he saw this NS merchandise train passing over the Susquehanna River on the Rockville Bridge. He took advantage of the colorful sunset view just in time.
The icy waters of the Susquehanna, juxtaposed by fading sunlight, serve as a reminder that NS runs 24/7, in all weather conditions. Koontz recalls a saying he once heard about our around-the-clock service: “A sunset on the railroad is a pretty light show in the middle of the day.”
The train pictured, NS H53, operates in local service, working in tandem with the North Shore Railroad System, a group of six short line railroads that connect with NS. Through short line partnerships, NS extends our network reach and expands markets for customers served by the short lines.
2020 NS Calendar photo by: Doug Koontz, foreman, Harrisburg Terminal, Pennsylvania

Glenn Geisheimer posted
Charles Crawford The interior of the Rockville Viaduct is cement!

Norfolk Southern Railroad posted
Jack Stoner
Robert Wanner posted
The set up of Pennsylvania Railroad facilities and bridges on the West Shore between Enola and Marysville, Pa. in the early years. Lots to see and observe. Unknown photographer or Historical Society.
[From the comments: the second bridge reused the piers of the 1849 wooden bridge.]

Two of the four photos posted by Raymond Storey.

Keith Pomroy Note the absence of the connection from the bridge to Enola. That wasn’t installed until 1939. Freight traffic for Williamsport left out of Harrisburg Yards.

PennLive has additional photos in their description of this 1977 wreck
Cars and engines from two Conrail freights lie twisted on the tracks after an early morning accident on the Rockville Bridge, Aug. 28, 1977. The car in the river was full of rolls of newsprint. (Allied Pix for The Patriot-News)

Larry Stultz posted
Here we are, coming off the Rockville Bridge heading toward Harrisburg. Official PRR photograph, do not know the year. Enjoy.
Zack Childress How long did that engine stay in that paint scheme? And 6110?
Will Heller Yes. 6110 and 6111 were the 2 prototypes and the only ones to have the lower cladding with yellow painted lines near the wheels and the razor nose.
Thomas C. Ayers This photo by Baldwin is of PRR engine #6111.

Larry Stultz posted
Found this in my files the other day along with the T-1 I put up. I do believe that it too is heading to Harrisburg on the Rockville bridge. Do not know the year nor the originator. Enjoy.
Kenneth E. Carden Nice photo over Rockville but that would be a K4.
Keith Pomroy commented on Larry's post
One clue as to which way the river is flowing (and therefore which direction the train is heading) is the icebreakers at the foot of each pier on the upriver side of the bridge. They’re not visible here, which means we are looking at the downriver side of the bridge, and the train is therefore headed east across the bridge.
Here is the upriver side, with sloping components to keep river ice from scouring out the piers.
[Looking at a map, Harrisburg is on the east side of the river.]
Mike Salvatore posted
Heavyweight Pullman cars trail Pennsylvania Railroad train 72, the eastbound Juniata, at Marysville, Pa., in 1952. The train, which is about to cross the famed Rockville Bridge over the Susquehanna River, is en route from Detroit to New York City.
Philip R. Hastings photo Times have changed.....
I never noticed until I saw the above photo how sharp the curves are at the end. Note the cut stone retaining wall.

(new window)  There is evidently a serious stone arch railroad bridge further downstream by Harrisburg. Another drone flyover of the river.

Trackchart from pc.smellycat