Friday, June 30, 2017

Iron Furnace in Shawnee National Forest

(Satellite (41 photos))

Decades ago, I learned there were relics of old iron furnaces in New Jersey. About a decade ago I learned there were some in southeast Ohio. This past year I learned there we some in Kentucky. But today is the first I knew there was one in Illinois. This goes on the "todo" list to get some photos of the interpretive signs.

Jane Netzler posted
So much history in Shawnee National Forest.

Thursday, June 29, 2017

NS/Philadelphia & Reading 1924, 51-arch Bridge in Harrisburg, PA

(Bridge Hunter, Historic Bridges3D Satellite, Street View)

I found this bridge while looking for a satellite image of the Cumberland Valley Bridge.

Its 51 arches are three more than the Rockville Bridge. In the satellite image and in some of the photos I noticed pier ruins west of the bridge on the south side. I presume they are left over from a previous

HAER PA,22-HARBU,30--1 from LoC
OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING NE FROM WEST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. PIERS FROM SOUTH PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT LEFT, PHILADELPHIA & READING RAILROAD BRIDGE AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, North of I-83 Bridge, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA
HAER PA,22-HARBU,30--2 from LoC
OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM EAST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. NOTE INSCRIPTIONS ON PIER AT TOP LEFT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, North of I-83 Bridge, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

Light Rail?/Aban/Cumberland Valley 1916, 43-Arch Bridge in Harrisburg, PA

(Bridge Hunter, Historic Bridges3D Satellite)

Seamond Roberts posted
It is a good thing that reinforced concrete structures are expensive to tear down and remove because this bridge is now being considered for a light rail service.

Adventures and Pondering has more information about the five bridges that crossed here (3 wood, 1 iron and the current concrete one) and Explore PA History describes the Cumberland Valley.

Light Rail/Conrail/Pennsy/Panhandle over Monongahela in Pittsgurgh

(Bridge Hunter, Historic Bridges, 3D SatelliteBirds-Eye View)

Another "two within a couple of hours of each other" postings.

AltoonaWorks added
A PRR passenger train crosses the Monongahela River at Pittsburgh on the Panhandle Bridge. This bridge is used by the Pittsburgh Light Rail today.
Ian Bowling commented on the above posting
Here’s an older picture of the Panhandle Bridge
Mark Hinsdale posted
"Distinctly Pittsburgh"
If Baltimore & Ohio's "Trailer Jets" between Chicago and Philadelphia were both on time in the late 70's and early 80's, they tended to meet each other in the Pittsburgh vicinity in early afternoon. Such is the case here, as the eastbound CPTT (Chicago-Philadelphia Trailer Train) roars east on the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie main line in Pittsburgh's West End. If you look closely, you can just make out the crewman on the rear platform of the caboose on westbound CHTT, the Chicago Trailer Train on the other main track. Conrail's impressive ex Pennsylvania Railroad Ohio River Connecting Bridge looms large in the background, with the broad Ohio River to the right. August, 1980 photo by Mark Hinsdale
[I think it is the Monongahela River on the right.]

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Old Hickory Lock, Dam and Powerhouse on the Cumberland River

(Satellite)
Old Hickory Lock was opened to navigation traffic in June 1954.  The lock chamber is 397 feet long and 84 feet wide.  During normal lake levels, the lock will lift a boat 60 feet from the river below the dam to the lake above the dam.  The lock releases over 15 million gallons of water each time is emptied. [USACE]
USACE photo by Leee Roberts from WorkBoat
The choice of the above photo by WorkBoat was interesting because the article was about shipping Illinois Basic coal for export from Princeton, IN by Norfolk Southern through their Lamberts Point terminal in Norfolk, VA. The alternative export option is by barge down the Ohio and Mississippi for midstream transfer at New Orleans. I don't see how this lock would ever see export coal from any Illinois Basin producer. Maybe there just are not that many pictures of coal barges in a lock.

In the Summer of 2015, they dewatered the lock for a month to do standard 5-year maintenance work. This consists of  welding cracks and replacing worn parts. They also "had ERDC (Engineer Research and Development Center) come in and apply a carbon fiber reinforced polymer to the lower gates....The applications of CFRP at Old Hickory Lock will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of this repair method and how it is impacted by exposure in a wet environment." [dvidshub]

USACE photo by Leon Roberts from dodlive

USACE photo by Leon Roberts from dodlive
From lead230:






This is the first time I have seen a lock without a grate over the gears and the other machinery bays. Also note that they store the bulkhead pieces in a "bay" beside the lock so they will be ready for the next 5-year maintenance cycle and for emergency repairs.
Screenshot


BNSF/GN/OTR 1910 Trout Creek Trestle

(Bridge Hunter, no Historic Bridges, Satellite)
There is also a Trout Creek Trestle in Canada. This was the bridge that Google Map's search found.

Steven J. Brown commented on a nice overview photo posted by John Biehn
Back at ya!
John Biehn I can see an outline of myself about half way between photographers and right side of your photo. A line of light behind me.Thanks for your shot.
[It is nice to see that another steam locomotive, SP 4449, is running again. John's photo shows that there were at least 15 passenger cars in the train.]

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Oakdale Junction: CRL/Rock Island+B&O vs. UP/MoPac/C&WI

Satellite
I learned about this junction from comments on a Facebook posting:
Franklin Campbell And Oakdale just east of there
John LaRochelle Controlled by the C&WI operator at 81st Street Tower per the C&WI Special Instructions and Speed Restrictions in effect February 26, 1974, Speed Limit 30 MPH for trains moving on the C&WI.

I just discovered Chicago and Northern Indiana Railroad Interlocking Towers. It provides a Flickr photo link that has the comment:
A southbound Missouri Pacific caboose hop behind GP50 No. 3521 is seen on the C&WI Dolton Branch about to cross the Rock Island South Chicago Branch at Oakdale. 

This was Mile Post 10.1 on the C&WI's Dolton Branch (approximately 91st Street). Oakdale was a station stop for C&WI suburban trains until 1964. The crossing with the former Rock Island South Chicago Branch (in foreground) was controlled remotely by 81st Street Tower when this photo was taken in the summer of 1981. C&WI's Dolton Branch went from two tracks to four tracks just north of the crossing. The MP caboose hop has used the southward passenger main from 81st Street and is enroute back to Yard Center to tie up after delivering an intermodal train to Canal Street Yard. UP currently owns the C&WI Dolton Branch and only the two freight mains (at left) remain today.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Mississippi Dam and Powerhouse #19

(Satellite) There are other views of the powerhouse and dam in the background of photos of the lock.

Between Keokuk, Iowa, and Hamilton, IL, is Mississippi Lock and Dam #19. It also has a powerhouse. In fact, the powerhouse is why it was originally built, and this dam existed a few decades before the other dams were added to the Mississippi to improve navigation.

This dam is about a mile long, and it is rather hard to get a picture of the whole thing. It was the second longest dam in the world when it was built, and it is still the longest dam on the Mississippi river. But, by an historical marker park on the Illinois side, someone has cut the trees so that you can see most of the dam and powerhouse. (Unlike most river powerhouses, this one is perpendicular to the dam rather than part of the dam. That is, it is parallel to the shore.)

20140613 0028c
The organizers of the effort to build the plant searched for years before they found someone willing to attempt the project---Hugh L. Cooper, the engineer who had supervised the construction of the Niagara Falls plant. Since the customers they secured contracts with before they started construction were in St. Louis, the project was also the first to use high-voltage transformers and transmission towers. The Army Corps of Engineers received the lock for the 6???-foot navigation project as a condition of the original construction permit.

When the powerhouse was built during 1910-13, the $25 million project was the largest privately funded construction project in the world. People came from all around the world to witness the construction and the town became known internationally.

It was the second largest dam, the largest monolithic concrete dam, the largest hydroelectric power plant with the largest cast iron turbines. (I'm still trying to determine if the largest hydroelectric power plant would also have been the largest power plant.) For comparison, the 1885 Niagara Power Station had 10 AC generators, each rated at 5,000 horsepower (3,700 kw) or 50,000 horsepower. The Keokuk Power Station was rated at 250,000 horsepower and 142MW. Each unit can do 10MW, but there must be switching equipment limitations that limit the plants capacity to 142 instead of 15*10=150.

But when the plant was opened for the 100th anniversary tour, a sign shows 150,000 horsepower and 150MW. The sign is obviously wrong because the horsepower should be more than the KW.

https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82005d1374711815-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0282.jpg

https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82007d1374711859-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0281.jpg



HydroWorld[1] has summarized the "firsts" for hydroelectricity:
- Longest monolithic concrete dam;
- Largest privately-funded hydropower construction project;
- Largest turbines ever constructed;
- Heaviest rotating weight suspended on a single bearing;
- Largest penstocks;
- Largest inland dry dock;
- Only pneumatically-raised lock gate;
- Only commercial hydroelectric facility on the Mississippi River;
- First long-distance transmission line;
- First high-voltage transformers; and
- First high-voltage insulators.
Another notable feature of the plant - the generator rotor, turbine and shaft assemblies - may be the largest ever built. A single bearing that was four times larger than anything built previously supports each assembly. Engineers were uncertain a scale-up of the roller bearing would be adequate to provide the desired service life for the system. Only half of the turbines were installed with roller bearings. The others were installed using a new type of bearing that had just been invented by Kingsbury Thrust Bearings. These new bearings were so effective that they replaced all of the roller bearings at the plant within the following decade. After a century of virtually continuous operation, none has needed more than minimal repair.
[1]


Between Nauvoo, IL, and Keokuk, Iowa, was the Des Moines rapids. The 11-mile stretch of river that falls 22 feet (28 feet in a different source) was the first major obstruction to travel on the Mississippi river. This drop in elevation provides much of the 38 foot head (distance between upper and lower pools of water) for the power station. See a St. Louis Post-Dispatch article for a photo by David Carson of one of the cast iron Francis water wheels that has been retired. (Starting in 2001 the turbines are being replaced with more efficient stainless steel turbines.[1]) This turbine was designed to use a small head but with a high flow rate as opposed to the type of turbine that is used in, say, the Hoover Dam. That article also has a picture of the 15 generators. (Use the arrow in the upper-right corner of the photo to access the other photos.)

Reference link has broken
Comparing David's photo in the Post-Dispatch article of the generator room with an historical photo shows that most of the manual controls are still in place, but they are no longer used. All of the electrical components of the plant have been replaced, but most of the mechanical and civil-engineering components are of the original design, if not fabrication.

The electrical changes include switching from 25 Hertz power to 60 Hertz and using computer-based controls. But much of the 110,000 volt transmission equipment that was developed for this project is still in use[1]. The highest voltage used by the Niagara project was 20kV.

The current use of the hydro power is as a peaking plant because a generating unit can be brought on line in a matter of minutes. Basically, open a gate and sync it to the grid. This allows the plant to be used when one of Ameren Missouri's baseline nuclear or fossil fuel plants has an unexpected outage or during "peak" periods of electrical demands.




Every arch in the dam had a spillway sluice gate. It has been rainy enough this summer that some of the gates are open. A close up indicates that they have several gates open a little bit.

 
Other photos I have seen of the dam seem to use just a few gates that are opened wider.

WGEM
I wonder if they opened the gates wider than normal to get a publicity shot for their 100th anniversary of operation. Many of the photos don't have any gates open at all because the locking operations and powerhouse can handle the river's flow. In fact, each day the Army Corps of Engineers notifies Ameren Missouri how many of the 15 turbines that they can run that day.

I learned that the Iowa side has the wrong angle to see the gates at the top of the spillway. The next time I go, I'm going to have to explore the Montebello State Park because it has a better view of the dam's arches. But it is still hard to see the gate itself. And then I found a closeup of a single arch in the Google image collection.

Hannah, used with permission

I think the flow in this case is just leakage. The dam is 29 feet wide at the top, 42 feet wide at the bottom, 53 feet high, and 4460 feet long. The spillways are 32 feet high. There are 119 piers. Originally just the piers and arch were built to create a bridge. This minimized the pressure on the next cofferdam for the next pier. Then the spillways were added under the arches 5 feet at a time.

http://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82007d1374711859-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0281.jpg
During the time of the tour, the river was well into flood stage. The gates were open and the water was really churning.


Cross section of water raceway
http://alongthemississippi.org/2013/08/07/how-to-be-alone-2/



https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82022d1374712794-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0298.jpg

https://cgee.hamline.edu/rivers/Resources/Postcards/Keokuk1.html


 Impacts of the raised water level

Raising the level of the Mississippi River to create a 60-mile-long lake posed problems along the Iowa shoreline. The company wound up buying out almost half of three towns and moving the residents higher up on the bluff. Another challenge was raising the elevation of nearly 14 miles of track that belonged to the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad and ran along the Iowa river bank.[1]
The upper pool is 50% full of sediment. The sediment accumulation destroyed mussel beds that were upstream of the dam. This in turn destroyed the perl button business along the river. Actually, perl button is a misnomer. The buttons were made by punching them out of the shells.[2, page 26]

References:


1) Induction into the HydroWorld Hall of Fame in 2013.
2) Keokuk and the Great Dam, John E. Hallwas, Arcadia Publishing, 2001.

Mississippi Lock #19

This is the lock for Dam #19.
20140613 0046, you can see the powerhouse in the middle in the dam in the background
This view was taken from the old roadway of the swing bridge that is now an observation deck.
The original lock was 110x358 (one source said 400 for the length), the same width as the Panama Canal Locks. The current lock is 110x1200 and can handle a standard upper-Mississipi tow of fifteen barges.

Satellite
Google Map's satellite image has a glitch, but it is good enough to tell a tow is leaving the lock. Bing caught the lock when it was empty and the swing bridge was closed.

Satellite
A view taken upstream from the lock's visitor center. Note that the gate is not a miter gate. It is opened by being lowered into a slot in the canal bed.

A view looking downstream from the visitor center that also catches a train on the bridge.

https://www.panoramio.com/photo/63045521
Inside Lock #19 - Keokuk
https://www.panoramio.com/photo/4694903
Mississippi locks at Keokuk

Sunday, June 25, 2017

2011 LA-10 over Mississippi River near St. Francisville, LA

(Bridge Hunter, John Weeks IIISatellite (36 photos), formal name: John James Audubon Bridge)

John Weeks III
The 1583-foot main span claimed the title of the longest in the United States from the Cooper River Bridge by 37 feet. The 520 foot tall towers are supported by 42 drilled shafts that extend 180 feet into the riverbed. The 2.5 mile bridge is four lanes with big sholders. The state road using this bridge is currently just a two lane road.  The planned cost per daily vehicle cost was $350m/6000 = $58k. The actual cost is (2012) $410m/2887 = $142k. It replaced a ferry service.


US-17 between Charleston and Mt. Pleasant SC

(Bridge Hunter, 3D Satellite (198 Photos), formal name: Arthur Ravenel Bridge)

"Longest Cable-Stayed bridge in America" [Bridge Hunter] That is no longer true. The John James Audubon Bridge has a main span that is 37 feet longer than the 1546 foot main span of this bridge.

The construction company for this bridge bought the crane that was created to build the Luling Bridge.

It replaced two cantilever truss bridges.

Photo by Andrew Penik from Bridge Hunter
All three 1929, 1966, 2005

1983 I-310 Bridge over Mississippi River at Luling, LA

(Bridge Hunter, John Weeks III3D Satellite (32 photos), formal name: Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge)

More info on the barge-mounted 60-foot ringer crane that was created to build the bridge is here. The big crane was then bought by the Cooper River Construction company to build the Arthur J. Ravenel Jr. Bridge.

Ben Stalvey posted
Dennis Gigoux reposted with a lot of commentary
Steve Khail This was another of my photo shoots for Manitowoc. The Luling Bridge was a very high profile project that was also featured in a Budweiser TV ad.

Mike Larson 60' diameter PLATFORM-RINGER, similar to the RINGER that went with a 4600 Series-4 crane, but with the crane replaced with a platform, winches, and counterweight replacing the crane itself. It was designed for applications like this, in which the a company was going to use the machine in one place and didn't need the crane itself.

Anthony Gugliuzza It now belongs to the USACE .
Under Construction, from Bridge Hunter
John Weeks III
"The Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge, also known as the Luling Bridge, was the first major cable stayed bridge to be built in the United States. The bridge is somewhat unusual for a cable stayed structure in that is has very few stay cables. In addition, the deck is built like a box girder, which is a much more robust structure than typically seen on suspended bridges....The bridge towers soar 400 feet into the air, with the deck having 155 feet of clearance between the sea-level water and the low bridge steel over the navigation channel." It was designed to survive hurricane force winds and Katrina demonstrated that the design worked. [John Weeks III] As I used to say at work, "being on the cutting edge of technology means you bleed a lot." Between 2009 and 2012 all of the cables were replaced because the original ones were beginning to corrode. The new cables are seven-wire strands coated in grease then encased in plastic. The original 72 cables were sealed with grout before being encased in plastic. The problem was that the grout began to crack and allowed water to make contact with the cables causing the steel to corrode. The new cables did not meet specification and had to be replaced. [NOLA: 1, 2] There were additional problems with rust and water leakage in the anchorages. [Wikipedia, (the ENR reference link does not work)]

60-foot ringer crane in the 1980s, Hercules

I got the impression that this was the first ringer crane ever designed. Or at least the largest at its time.

After it built the Luling Bridge, it was bought by the contractor for the Copper River Bridge in South Carolina. After that bride was done, the US Army Core of Engineers bought it.
Ben Stalvey posted
Can't wait to see more pictures of this platform Ringer. The US Army Corp Of Engineers owns it now. Called Hercules
Josh Karras commented on the posting
[This  is another barge mounted ringer crane with a jib and a big pile of counterweights.]
In 2013, Hercules helped clean up the Marseilles Dam barge allision.
US Coast Guard Photo from gCaptain



Tim Freitag posted He is at Peoria Lock and Dam
There you go Ben think this is a 4100. It's a core rig named Hercules.
Ben StalveyGroup Admin It's actually a 60' platform ringer. All platform ringers were based off of some pieces and parts of a 4600.

Mike weaver commented on Tim's posting
Mike Weaver commented on Tim's posting
Ben StalveyGroup Admin Sure is neat how it folds downJon Hart Has to fit under those bridges!
Andrew Erickson posted
Hercules headed up river by Lacon IL
[I wonder where the USACE stores it between jobs.]


Saturday, June 24, 2017

CSX/L&N Banklick Trestle near Independence, KY

(Bridge Hunter, no Historic Bridges, 3D Satellite, Street View)

Mark Hinsdale posted
The "Family Lines" System...
In August, 1980, some good friends and I managed to pick what had to have been the hottest, stickiest weekend in the history of the Ohio River Valley to spend railfanning in Cincinnati. While scouting out the north end of Decoursey Yard, we spotted a five unit Family Lines merchandise train that appeared to be about to depart. It was a good catch for us, and destined for the L&N "Short Line," so we headed out to the famous trestle at Independence KY to wait. And wait. And wait. After climbing all the way up there in heat and humidity one could cut with a kinife, we were not about to throw in the towel. We were finally rewarded, well over two hours later, with this view, in the hazy late afternoon sun. Photo by Mark Hinsdale

KO Tower: (Acutally Tower KO) C&NW vs. C&NW

(Satellite, Flickr)
Zachary C. Gillihan posted
All, I am looking for more information on this board, thinking Chicago area and possibly Lake Forest? Anyone have any photos of it in service?
Jon Roma As best as I can tell, the tower was built by the Chicago North Shore & Milwaukee interurban when they built their Skokie Valley bypass route circa 1925.This explains the peculiar appearance compared to the typical C&NW interlocking tower. I believe it was built by CNS&M but that C&NW exercised their prerogative as senior railroad to man the tower.

The interurban abandoned in 1963, and the plant was simplified accordingly.

Incidentally, C&NW parlance was Tower "KO", not "KO" Tower. 

I do not have a closing date for "KO", but I believe its end came around 1986 after C&NW had dropped timetable and train order operation, replacing it with Direct Traffic Control.

Zachary commented on his posting
Looks like a hell of place at one time!!
Obviously the CSN&M is now the Skokie Valley Bike Path in this area.

Russ Fierce commented on the posting
Here's a picture I found. Looks like much more recent.
You can see the tower near the bottom of this aerial.
1939 Aerial Photo from ILHAP