Friday, June 30, 2017

Illinois Iron Furnace in Shawnee National Forest

(Satellite (41 photos))

Decades ago, I learned there were relics of old iron furnaces in New Jersey. About a decade ago I learned there were some in southeast Ohio. This past year I learned there we some in Kentucky. But today is the first I knew there was one in Illinois. This goes on the "todo" list to get some photos of the interpretive signs.

Jane Netzler posted
So much history in Shawnee National Forest.

Sandy Rutherford Rush posted
Sandy Rutherford Rush Iron ore was smelted here for cannon balls during the civil war and for other uses.

Thursday, June 29, 2017

NS/Philadelphia & Reading 1924, 51-arch Bridge in Harrisburg, PA

NS/Philadelphia & Reading: (Bridge Hunter, Historic Bridges3D Satellite, Street View)

I found the P&R bridge while looking for a satellite image of the Cumberland Valley Bridge.

Its 51 arches are three more than the Rockville Bridge. In the satellite image and in some of the photos I noticed pier ruins west of the bridge on the south side. I presume they are left over from a previous

HAER PA,22-HARBU,30--1 from LoC
OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING NE FROM WEST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. PIERS FROM SOUTH PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT LEFT, PHILADELPHIA & READING RAILROAD BRIDGE AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, North of I-83 Bridge, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA
HAER PA,22-HARBU,30--2 from LoC
OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM EAST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. NOTE INSCRIPTIONS ON PIER AT TOP LEFT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, North of I-83 Bridge, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA


Light Rail?/Aban/Cumberland Valley 1916, 43-Arch Bridge in Harrisburg, PA

(Bridge Hunter, Historic Bridges3D Satellite)

Just down stream is another historic concrete arch bridge. ConRail abandoned this bridge because they favored the P&R bridge.

Seamond Roberts posted
It is a good thing that reinforced concrete structures are expensive to tear down and remove because this bridge is now being considered for a light rail service.

Adventures and Pondering has more information about the five bridges that crossed here (3 wood, 1 iron and the current concrete one) and Explore PA History describes the Cumberland Valley.

Update:  The bridge in the postcard doesn't look like this.
Michael Froio Photography posted
The Pennsylvania Railroad’s strategic Cumberland Valley Bridge spanned the Susquehanna to provide the PRR with Main Line connections to the Cumberland Valley Line to Hagerstown, the York Haven Line, and the Harrisburg passenger terminal. The existing bridge is the last of five such spans at this location dating as far back as 1839. The current bridge was completed in 1916 and consists of 45 reinforced concrete arch spans that carried two main tracks between State interlocking and Lemoyne Junction.

John Rose I remember my Uncle Ray (who worked for the railroad in the Enola diesel shop) taking us out on the river in his boat. One time we saw 3 PC or CR E44's running light over the bridge toward Harrisburg. I believe I heard by that time most freight was routed over the Rockville bridge further north and the Cumberland Valley bridge was mostly locomotive moves.
Mike Froio John I think that was always the case. Most freight came up the Enola Low Grade from Columbia. It wasn’t until the Shocks Mills Bridge failed that they started sending big freights over the CV until the Bridge was repaired.
William Frederick They had to put in a new leg to the wye on the HBG side so you could go east. If I remember right it was restricted to 5 mph because it was so sharp.. We would pull east out of Enola to clear LEMO then back up toward Camp Hill then go over the bridge.

Mike Froio shared
James Ridgway Jr. Woefully underused for the last 40+ years. Only used to turn engines at HBG station. Penn Central built wye to replace Shock’s Mills bridge until it was rebuilt after Agnes. Various commuter proposals would see it reactivated; Don’t hold your breath...
John Laughner I better go back and look at my pictures I took of the last circus train that I thought used that bridge in 2016. They held up the train for quite a while to turn around some engines and in the interim a double stack went by. What is confusing me?
Richard D. Zink Due to the demands of traffic disruption, due to Agnes, they put a complete Wye in at the passenger station ( East Leg). Amtrak has left enough track on the bridge [satellite] to enable a passenger train to be turned, and that track and wye still exists by the Harrisburg Hospital and out onto the East end of the bridge. So .. maybe they used that to turn the power.
Raymond Smith John Laughner, Go up to the Bridges cafeteria in the hospital on the 11th floor. The tracks are gone except a short distance on the east shore used for a wye. The circus train you saw was on the Reading Bridge which is still used. The tracks were torn up for quite some time.
A Flickr photo of the upstream side
This is one of several bridges described by Sean Adams.


Note the slanted edge of on the upstream side of the piers. That means they have problems with ice flows on this river. This is also a nice view of the NS/P&R bridge.
Larry Stultz commented on Mike's share
In 1996, ice flows tore some spans out of the Walnut Street Bridge, which was a trail bridge. Some are arguing that this bridge should be turned into a trail bridge.

(new window)



And I fell down the YouTube rabbit hole.
(new window)  This happened in 1938.


Light Rail/Conrail/Pennsy/Panhandle over Monongahela in Pittsburgh

(Bridge Hunter, Historic Bridges, 3D SatelliteBirds-Eye View)

Another "two within a couple of hours of each other" postings.

AltoonaWorks added
A PRR passenger train crosses the Monongahela River at Pittsburgh on the Panhandle Bridge. This bridge is used by the Pittsburgh Light Rail today.
Ian Bowling commented on the above posting
Here’s an older picture of the Panhandle Bridge
Mark Hinsdale posted
"Distinctly Pittsburgh"
If Baltimore & Ohio's "Trailer Jets" between Chicago and Philadelphia were both on time in the late 70's and early 80's, they tended to meet each other in the Pittsburgh vicinity in early afternoon. Such is the case here, as the eastbound CPTT (Chicago-Philadelphia Trailer Train) roars east on the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie main line in Pittsburgh's West End. If you look closely, you can just make out the crewman on the rear platform of the caboose on westbound CHTT, the Chicago Trailer Train on the other main track. Conrail's impressive ex Pennsylvania Railroad Ohio River Connecting Bridge looms large in the background, with the broad Ohio River to the right. August, 1980 photo by Mark Hinsdale
[I think it is the Monongahela River on the right.]
Henry St George Tucker posted two photos with the comment: "Former PRR Panhandle Bridge, now used by Port Authority Transit of Allegheny County Light Rail system."

1

2, cropped
Jimmy Braum posted the comment: "Testimony to the quality of PRR construction. The Panhandle bridge in Pittsburgh took a direct hit by a runaway barge this morning, and is still standing without any preliminary damage visible."
Tim O'Malley Is this portion of the Panhandle now used by Norfolk Southern, or some other railroad?
Jimmy Braum Tim O'Malley PAT port Authority transit light rail.
Alexander Mitchell Last report is Panhandle is still closed as a precaution, however.
Lance Myers Seems to be a recurring problem.

Mark Hinsdale posted three photos with the comment:
"Panhandle Bridge"
To access Pennsylvania Station in Pittsburgh PA, Pennsylvania Railroad passenger trains to or from the "Panhandle" (serving Columbus, Cincinnati, Indianapolis and St. Louis) utilized a bridge across the Monongahela River situated between the Smithfield Street and Liberty Bridges. This "Panhandle Bridge" as it was known, was the route of key PRR trains, such as the "Spirit of St. Louis," the "Penn Texas" and the "Cincinnati Limited." As rail passenger service faded and Amtrak assumed most intercity operations, only Amtrak's "National Limited" continued to use the bridge on a regular basis. Conrail had no compelling freight need for the bridge, and also planned on the eventual downgrading of the "Panhandle" route west of Pittsburgh. The bridge was sold to the Port Authority of Allegheny County in the early 1980's and rebuilt for use by PAT's light rail system. It was quite rare by the time I worked in Pittsburgh (1979-80) to catch a move on the bridge, as the National Limited ran in the wee hours both ways, and was, itself, discontinued by Amtrak in 1979. However, the sporadic freight move still occurred if there was a derailment or maintenance curfew on Conrail's Monongahela Branch that ran along the south side of the river. That was the case here, as a couple of westbound trains used the bridge and waited at "MONON," the junction with the Mon Branch, for a signal to proceed west. It would only be a short time before Conrail terminated its use of "Panhandle Bridge." Today, PAT light rail vehicles cross it frequently. September, 1980 photos by Mark Hinsdale

Steven Schorr Was there a complete wye at the end of this bridge or did it only connect to the mon line northward?
Mark Hinsdale In the 2nd image, you can barely make out the trestle carrying the east eye in the distant background. It was used by commuter trains PRR once operated between Pittsburgh, Homestead and Brownsville.
Tom Umpleby Thank you for post; worked that line to Columbus and been across bridge on truck trains and empty grain trains like the one pictured.

Mark Hinsdale shared
Chris Osterhus Aside from a lack of traffic, the other issue that doomed the bridge, was the rather tight tunnel under downtown...and the station's reconfiguration in the early 1980s. Several tracks, including those used by the National Limited, were combined to make room for the parallel busway.
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Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Old Hickory Lock, Dam and Powerhouse on the Cumberland River

(Satellite)
Old Hickory Lock was opened to navigation traffic in June 1954.  The lock chamber is 397 feet long and 84 feet wide.  During normal lake levels, the lock will lift a boat 60 feet from the river below the dam to the lake above the dam.  The lock releases over 15 million gallons of water each time is emptied. [USACE]
USACE photo by Leee Roberts from WorkBoat
The choice of the above photo by WorkBoat was interesting because the article was about shipping Illinois Basic coal for export from Princeton, IN by Norfolk Southern through their Lamberts Point terminal in Norfolk, VA. The alternative export option is by barge down the Ohio and Mississippi for midstream transfer at New Orleans. I don't see how this lock would ever see export coal from any Illinois Basin producer. Maybe there just are not that many pictures of coal barges in a lock.

In the Summer of 2015, they dewatered the lock for a month to do standard 5-year maintenance work. This consists of  welding cracks and replacing worn parts. They also "had ERDC (Engineer Research and Development Center) come in and apply a carbon fiber reinforced polymer to the lower gates....The applications of CFRP at Old Hickory Lock will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of this repair method and how it is impacted by exposure in a wet environment." [dvidshub]

USACE photo by Leon Roberts from dodlive

USACE photo by Leon Roberts from dodlive
From lead230:






This is the first time I have seen a lock without a grate over the gears and the other machinery bays. Also note that they store the bulkhead pieces in a "bay" beside the lock so they will be ready for the next 5-year maintenance cycle and for emergency repairs.
Screenshot


BNSF/GN/OTR 1910 Trout Creek Trestle

(Bridge Hunter, no Historic Bridges, Satellite)
There is also a Trout Creek Trestle in Canada. This was the bridge that Google Map's search found.

Steven J. Brown commented on a nice overview photo posted by John Biehn
Back at ya!
John Biehn I can see an outline of myself about half way between photographers and right side of your photo. A line of light behind me.Thanks for your shot.
[It is nice to see that another steam locomotive, SP 4449, is running again. John's photo shows that there were at least 15 passenger cars in the train.]

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Oakdale Junction: CRL/Rock Island+B&O vs. UP/MoPac/C&WI

Satellite
I learned about this junction from comments on a Facebook posting:
Franklin Campbell And Oakdale just east of there
John LaRochelle Controlled by the C&WI operator at 81st Street Tower per the C&WI Special Instructions and Speed Restrictions in effect February 26, 1974, Speed Limit 30 MPH for trains moving on the C&WI.

I just discovered Chicago and Northern Indiana Railroad Interlocking Towers. It provides a Flickr photo link that has the comment:
A southbound Missouri Pacific caboose hop behind GP50 No. 3521 is seen on the C&WI Dolton Branch about to cross the Rock Island South Chicago Branch at Oakdale. 

This was Mile Post 10.1 on the C&WI's Dolton Branch (approximately 91st Street). Oakdale was a station stop for C&WI suburban trains until 1964. The crossing with the former Rock Island South Chicago Branch (in foreground) was controlled remotely by 81st Street Tower when this photo was taken in the summer of 1981. C&WI's Dolton Branch went from two tracks to four tracks just north of the crossing. The MP caboose hop has used the southward passenger main from 81st Street and is enroute back to Yard Center to tie up after delivering an intermodal train to Canal Street Yard. UP currently owns the C&WI Dolton Branch and only the two freight mains (at left) remain today.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Mississippi Dam and Powerhouse #19 at Keokuk, IA

(Satellite) There are other views of the powerhouse and dam in the background of photos of the lock.

Between Keokuk, Iowa, and Hamilton, IL, is Mississippi Lock and Dam #19. It also has a powerhouse. In fact, the powerhouse is why it was originally built, and this dam existed a few decades before the other dams were added to the Mississippi to improve navigation.

This dam is about a mile long, and it is rather hard to get a picture of the whole thing. It was the second longest dam in the world when it was built, and it is still the longest dam on the Mississippi river. But, by an historical marker park on the Illinois side, someone has cut the trees so that you can see most of the dam and powerhouse. (Unlike most river powerhouses, this one is perpendicular to the dam rather than part of the dam. That is, it is parallel to the shore.)

20140613 0028c
The organizers of the effort to build the plant searched for years before they found someone willing to attempt the project---Hugh L. Cooper, the engineer who had supervised the construction of the Niagara Falls plant. Since the customers they secured contracts with before they started construction were in St. Louis, the project was also the first to use high-voltage transformers and transmission towers. The Army Corps of Engineers received the lock for the 6???-foot navigation project as a condition of the original construction permit.

When the powerhouse was built during 1910-13, the $25 million project was the largest privately funded construction project in the world. People came from all around the world to witness the construction and the town became known internationally.

It was the second largest dam, the largest monolithic concrete dam, the largest hydroelectric power plant with the largest cast iron turbines. (I'm still trying to determine if the largest hydroelectric power plant would also have been the largest power plant.) For comparison, the 1885 Niagara Power Station had 10 AC generators, each rated at 5,000 horsepower (3,700 kw) or 50,000 horsepower. The Keokuk Power Station was rated at 250,000 horsepower and 142MW. Each unit can do 10MW, but there must be switching equipment limitations that limit the plants capacity to 142 instead of 15*10=150.

But when the plant was opened for the 100th anniversary tour, a sign shows 150,000 horsepower and 150MW. The sign is obviously wrong because the horsepower should be more than the KW.

https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82005d1374711815-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0282.jpg

https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82007d1374711859-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0281.jpg



HydroWorld[1] has summarized the "firsts" for hydroelectricity:
- Longest monolithic concrete dam;
- Largest privately-funded hydropower construction project;
- Largest turbines ever constructed;
- Heaviest rotating weight suspended on a single bearing;
- Largest penstocks;
- Largest inland dry dock;
- Only pneumatically-raised lock gate;
- Only commercial hydroelectric facility on the Mississippi River;
- First long-distance transmission line;
- First high-voltage transformers; and
- First high-voltage insulators.
Another notable feature of the plant - the generator rotor, turbine and shaft assemblies - may be the largest ever built. A single bearing that was four times larger than anything built previously supports each assembly. Engineers were uncertain a scale-up of the roller bearing would be adequate to provide the desired service life for the system. Only half of the turbines were installed with roller bearings. The others were installed using a new type of bearing that had just been invented by Kingsbury Thrust Bearings. These new bearings were so effective that they replaced all of the roller bearings at the plant within the following decade. After a century of virtually continuous operation, none has needed more than minimal repair.
[1]


Between Nauvoo, IL, and Keokuk, Iowa, was the Des Moines rapids. The 11-mile stretch of river that falls 22 feet (28 feet in a different source) was the first major obstruction to travel on the Mississippi river. This drop in elevation provides much of the 38 foot head (distance between upper and lower pools of water) for the power station. See a St. Louis Post-Dispatch article for a photo by David Carson of one of the cast iron Francis water wheels that has been retired. (Starting in 2001 the turbines are being replaced with more efficient stainless steel turbines.[1]) This turbine was designed to use a small head but with a high flow rate as opposed to the type of turbine that is used in, say, the Hoover Dam. That article also has a picture of the 15 generators. (Use the arrow in the upper-right corner of the photo to access the other photos.)

Reference link has broken
Comparing David's photo in the Post-Dispatch article of the generator room with an historical photo shows that most of the manual controls are still in place, but they are no longer used. All of the electrical components of the plant have been replaced, but most of the mechanical and civil-engineering components are of the original design, if not fabrication.

The electrical changes include switching from 25 Hertz power to 60 Hertz and using computer-based controls. But much of the 110,000 volt transmission equipment that was developed for this project is still in use[1]. The highest voltage used by the Niagara project was 20kV.

The current use of the hydro power is as a peaking plant because a generating unit can be brought on line in a matter of minutes. Basically, open a gate and sync it to the grid. This allows the plant to be used when one of Ameren Missouri's baseline nuclear or fossil fuel plants has an unexpected outage or during "peak" periods of electrical demands.




Every arch in the dam had a spillway sluice gate. It has been rainy enough this summer that some of the gates are open. A close up indicates that they have several gates open a little bit.

 
Other photos I have seen of the dam seem to use just a few gates that are opened wider.

WGEM
I wonder if they opened the gates wider than normal to get a publicity shot for their 100th anniversary of operation. Many of the photos don't have any gates open at all because the locking operations and powerhouse can handle the river's flow. In fact, each day the Army Corps of Engineers notifies Ameren Missouri how many of the 15 turbines that they can run that day.

I learned that the Iowa side has the wrong angle to see the gates at the top of the spillway. The next time I go, I'm going to have to explore the Montebello State Park because it has a better view of the dam's arches. But it is still hard to see the gate itself. And then I found a closeup of a single arch in the Google image collection.

Hannah, used with permission

I think the flow in this case is just leakage. The dam is 29 feet wide at the top, 42 feet wide at the bottom, 53 feet high, and 4460 feet long. The spillways are 32 feet high. There are 119 piers. Originally just the piers and arch were built to create a bridge. This minimized the pressure on the next cofferdam for the next pier. Then the spillways were added under the arches 5 feet at a time.

http://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82007d1374711859-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0281.jpg
During the time of the tour, the river was well into flood stage. The gates were open and the water was really churning.


Cross section of water raceway
http://alongthemississippi.org/2013/08/07/how-to-be-alone-2/



https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/attachments/f19/82022d1374712794-tour-keokuk-hydroelectric-dam-imag0298.jpg

https://cgee.hamline.edu/rivers/Resources/Postcards/Keokuk1.html


 Impacts of the raised water level

Raising the level of the Mississippi River to create a 60-mile-long lake posed problems along the Iowa shoreline. The company wound up buying out almost half of three towns and moving the residents higher up on the bluff. Another challenge was raising the elevation of nearly 14 miles of track that belonged to the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad and ran along the Iowa river bank.[1]
The upper pool is 50% full of sediment. The sediment accumulation destroyed mussel beds that were upstream of the dam. This in turn destroyed the perl button business along the river. Actually, perl button is a misnomer. The buttons were made by punching them out of the shells.[2, page 26]

References:


1) Induction into the HydroWorld Hall of Fame in 2013.
2) Keokuk and the Great Dam, John E. Hallwas, Arcadia Publishing, 2001.


Update: Keokuk, Iowa Historians posted 25 aerial photos of the 1965 flood. I highlight the first one and another one that has a roundhouse.
a

b


Mississippi Lock #19 at Keokuk, IA

This is the lock for Dam #19.
20140613 0046, you can see the powerhouse in the middle in the dam in the background
This view was taken from the old roadway of the swing bridge that is now an observation deck.
The original lock was 110x358 (one source said 400 for the length), the same width as the Panama Canal Locks. The current lock is 110x1200 and can handle a standard upper-Mississipi tow of fifteen barges.

Satellite
Google Map's satellite image has a glitch, but it is good enough to tell a tow is leaving the lock. Bing caught the lock when it was empty and the swing bridge was closed.

Satellite
A view taken upstream from the lock's visitor center. Note that the gate is not a miter gate. It is opened by being lowered into a slot in the canal bed.

A view looking downstream from the visitor center that also catches a train on the bridge.

https://www.panoramio.com/photo/63045521
Inside Lock #19 - Keokuk
https://www.panoramio.com/photo/4694903
Mississippi locks at Keokuk

Keokuk, Iowa Historians posted two photos with the comment:
Keokuk, Iowa Historians Vintage Photo Archive
Circa 1893
THE LOWER LOCK OF THE DES MOINES RAPIDS CANAL AT THE KEOKUK RIVERFRONT
Many years before the construction of the current dam at Keokuk, river navigation between Montrose & Keokuk was hampered by what was known as the Des Moines Rapids.
The city of Keokuk was built mainly on the business of LITERING OF BOATS travelling between St. Louis to St. Paul. Because of the Des Moines Rapids at this location, boats travelling upstream were forced to stop at the port of Keokuk to unload cargo to lighten the boat, the cargo was taken upriver to Montrose by road & the boat, sans passengers & cargo, was then safely able to navigate the rapids slowly. At times this process could take several days, therefore Keokuk needed several hotels to house layover passengers, its stores and restaurants thrived from the business of these passengers. In its heyday before the canal was built Keokuk was considered the most important port between St. Louis & St. Paul. Because Montrose was smaller, and boats coming downstream from St. Paul had to undergo this same process, most of those passengers also opted to come to Keokuk to await the arrival of and reloading of the boats at the Keokuk landing
For many years, the 12 miles of rapids at Keokuk, Iowa, were the northern head of navigation. At high water the rapids were dangerous. At low water, they were impassible. Cargo headed up river or down river had to be unloaded from the boats and carried past the rapids in horse-drawn wagons.
The US Army started to clear the Mississippi River as early as 1829. Lieutenant Robert E. Lee ran a project from 1831 to 1833 to remove snags and blast the largest rocks in the rapids. While this made running the rapids a little less risky, it did not solve the problem. A canal would be the solution, but that would have to wait until after the Civil War was settled.
The Canal envisioned by Lee was approved and construction started in 1866. The canal was built along the west bank of the river. Starting at Keokuk, a wall was built 8 miles long to create a river channel that was independent of the main Mississippi River channel. This channel was deepened, and three locks were installed, with the upper lock at Nashville, now Galland, the guard lock & drydock at Price's Creek and the lower lock at Keokuk. This section of the canal opened to river traffic in 1877. A further 4 miles of canal was built south of Keokuk down to the Des Moines River. This was accomplished by blasting the bedrock to create a deeper channel along the west side of the river. This part of the canal was not separated from the main river as the upper portion was. The canal featured an overall depth of not less than 5 feet.
The Des Moines Rapids Canal was in operation for 36 years. Increasingly large river boats were too big to fit in the canal locks, and ever heavier barges required more than 5 feet of water depth. Congress responded by approving the 6 foot navigation channel plan. The result was the huge dam, the monumental power plant, and new Panama-sized lock that opened in 1913. Much of the old canal was destroyed and submerged when the new lock and dam opened. This structure is largely in place today. The major change is that the Panama-size lock was too small once Congress approved the 9-foot navigation channel plan. It was replaced with the current 1200-foot long lock in 1952 -1957.
Tapati McDaniels Interesting glimpse into the potential that was expected of Keokuk and how various factors diminished it's prospects of becoming a larger city. Much has to do with transportation changes, both passenger and freight. Changes in manufacturing was the final blow.
I hope fortunes change again so Keokuk can finally realize its potential.

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Sunday, June 25, 2017

2011 LA-10 over Mississippi River near St. Francisville, LA

(Bridge Hunter, John Weeks IIISatellite (36 photos), formal name: John James Audubon Bridge)

John Weeks III
The 1583-foot main span claimed the title of the longest in the United States from the Cooper River Bridge by 37 feet. The 520 foot tall towers are supported by 42 drilled shafts that extend 180 feet into the riverbed. The 2.5 mile bridge is four lanes with big sholders. The state road using this bridge is currently just a two lane road.  The planned cost per daily vehicle cost was $350m/6000 = $58k. The actual cost is (2012) $410m/2887 = $142k. It replaced a ferry service.


US-17 between Charleston and Mt. Pleasant SC

Another duplicate. Sigh. Please go here.

1983 Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge over Mississippi River at Luling, LA

(Bridge Hunter, John Weeks III3D Satellite (32 photos), formal name: Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge)

LADOTD via ResearchGate

bridges, p50

John Weeks III

Bridges, p5


More info on the barge-mounted 60-foot ringer crane that was created to build the bridge is here.

Ben Stalvey posted
Dennis Gigoux reposted with a lot of commentary
Steve Khail This was another of my photo shoots for Manitowoc. The Luling Bridge was a very high profile project that was also featured in a Budweiser TV ad.

Mike Larson 60' diameter PLATFORM-RINGER, similar to the RINGER that went with a 4600 Series-4 crane, but with the crane replaced with a platform, winches, and counterweight replacing the crane itself. It was designed for applications like this, in which the a company was going to use the machine in one place and didn't need the crane itself.

Anthony Gugliuzza It now belongs to the USACE .
Under Construction, from Bridge Hunter
"The Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge, also known as the Luling Bridge, was the first major cable stayed bridge to be built in the United States. The bridge is somewhat unusual for a cable stayed structure in that is has very few stay cables. In addition, the deck is built like a box girder, which is a much more robust structure than typically seen on suspended bridges....The bridge towers soar 400 feet into the air, with the deck having 155 feet of clearance between the sea-level water and the low bridge steel over the navigation channel." It was designed to survive hurricane force winds and Katrina demonstrated that the design worked. [John Weeks III] As I used to say at work, "being on the cutting edge of technology means you bleed a lot." Between 2009 and 2012 all of the cables were replaced because the original ones were beginning to corrode. The new cables are seven-wire strands coated in grease then encased in plastic. The original 72 cables were sealed with grout before being encased in plastic. The problem was that the grout began to crack and allowed water to make contact with the cables causing the steel to corrode. The new cables did not meet specification and had to be replaced. [NOLA: 1, 2] There were additional problems with rust and water leakage in the anchorages. [Wikipedia, (the ENR reference link does not work)]

A 2008 article:
Luling Bridge rating dropsRusty cables could mean a $20 million repair billBrendan Rush, public information officer for the DOTD, said despite the three structural rating the bridge received recently, it’s safe. Rush said there is a $14 billion backlog in making structural repairs to roads and bridges all across the state.
...
“When the twin span collapsed (bridge connecting New Orleans and Slidell), we made major changes,” he said. “We made sure that the speed limit got reduced and there was a weight limit for vehicles traveling back and forth across the bridge."
...
Gill Gautreau, engineer of bridge maintenance for the DOTD has 35 years of experience, and explains the rating. “The Luling Bridge got a three because the cables holding the bridge are bad and need to be replaced,” he said. “What residents need to understand is that this bridge is very unique in its structure and design and it will require a certain kind of bridge repair company to change the cables,” he continued. Gautreau said the Luling Bridge was the first major cable stay bridge in the United States. The cables that support the bridge are deteriorating — they are rusting more rapidly than anticipated and need to be replaced. “We don’t know how long they’ll last as they are,” he told the Herald-Guide. Gautreau said the cables have a multi-task protection system that was good enough in 1983, but is not good for our standards today. “The bridge was designed in the late 70’s,” he said.
...
“Repairing the cables could be very expensive,” he said. “Replacing the cables would be smarter and that is what we are planning to do.” Gautreau said only one company, has done this type of cable replacement, and they’re located in France.
...
The cost of replacing the cables is between $10 million and $20 million dollars.
Gautreau said this money will come from the Bridge Replacement Program, money provided by the federal government for bridge repairs.
...
For right now, Gautreau said, sensors will be used to detect whether or not the cable wires are ready to snap. “There are 72 wires holding up the Luling Bridge. The Fred Hartman Bridge in Houston, TX has a similar system to measure whether or not a cable is getting ready to break, “ he said. “And the laser method will also be used to determine a possible split in the cables.” Gautreau said a consulting firm out of Illinois will be contracting with them to monitor the Luling Bridge. “This bridge is so unique we’ve always had monitors on them to detect cable movement for possible deterioration.”
[HearaldGuide, paycount 2]
So state DOTs can get federal money to repair bridges. This makes the replacement, rather than an augmentation, of truss bridges even more scandalous.

A $30.5m project from 2009-12 replaced the old grout+plastic encased strands with 7-wire, greese+plastic encased strands. The new cables are designed to last approximately 75 years. The replacement cables themselves were replaced after failing to meet specifications! [nola] Another $20.5m was spent in 2016 to resurface the deck.

The plastic sheathing of the original cables was damaged in many of the cables before and during installation.  [ResearchGate] Hopefully, they didn't damage the replacement cables.
They tried fixing the cables, but to no avail. [ResearchGate] The repairs not only wasted money, they would have caused traffic disruptions.
"The new parallel-strand cable system allows individual strand installation, tensioning, inspection and replacement. Due to the suspected poor condition of the existing cables, the construction sequence incorporates temporary cables and detailed analysis of construction." [ascelibrary-replacement]
They also had to design a repair strategy that minimized the impact on the traffic. This bridge is on a hurricane evacuation route. [ascelibrary-evaluation]

The cost was actually $50 and took 2 more years than estimated because they discovered the new cables would not fit in the old holes in the towers. The contractor, Kiewit, picked the large cable design. The French company Freyssinet offered a smaller cable design. The state paid the cost overrun even though many thought it was the contractor's mistake. [wwltv] I recognize Freyssinet as the only company in the world that had done cable replacements by 2008.

In addition to corrosion in the cables and anchorages, there were wind-rain cable vibration issues. [bridges]

The old cables were parallel wires like that used in suspension bridges.
bridges, p8
The new cables are parallel strands. And the plastic is changed from polyethylene to high-density polyethylene. Note the spiral rib on the plastic pipe. That is to reduce wind-induced vibrations.
bridges, p20