Thursday, April 27, 2017

White's Mills in Athens, OH

20170416 8445
You are looking at where a 10-foot dam used to stand across the Hocking River In Athens, OH. If you look in the lower-right corner, you can see the cut-sandstone foundation built for the original 1816 mill by Captain Silas Bingman. Looking at the bottom of that foundation, behind the bush, you can see a steel plate. This plate covers the water intake. You can still see the vertical board next to it that would have held one side of a sluice gate when it was operational.

Since the water flow of the Hocking River is rather low, you can see the sandstone cap from which he cut the stones for his foundation.. He built a 10-foot high wooden crib dam. The person I talked to in the store said they made the dam with 10-foot rectangles of big wood beams and filled the wood crib with debris. In 1895 the wooden water waterwheel was replaced by a turbine. The dam was lined with concrete in 1900. The mill has had a few dam rebuilds because of floods, one fire that burned it down to the sandstone foundation, and a few owners. [scificincinnati]

Ed White bought it in 1911. Given it was started in 1816 and White did not buy it until 1911, I don't know why the date on the building is 1809. [scificincinnati] The dam was last rebuilt after a flood in the 1970s. Milling operations stopped in the 1980s. It is now a garden and gift shop. (For example, it sells books about Athens and Southeast Ohio and some art work.)

The following video has several scenes of the milling equipment that was inside the building.

Note the parking lot and wood fence on the other side of the river. Those are locations from which I took some pictures that are later in this blog.
They are proud of their old-mill history and have several photos hanging in the store of old mills, including some of their own. Look at the huge hydraulic jump created by their 10-foot dam.
This is a view from the Union Street Bridge that I used to get to the parking lot on the other side of the river.
This is a view from that parking lot. This was on a Sunday and the parking lot was otherwise empty. So I was not occupying a spot needed by a customer. There were a lot of No Trespassing signs along the edge of the parking lot. They don't want fisherman taking any risks here.
Obviously, I walked a downstream a bit to get this shot.
A closeup of the cut-sandstone foundation.
A view looking the other direction from the same spot to provide context. The next photo was taken after I walked downstream of that red building.
This is the view further downstream past the curve in the river.
This building is owned by the Athens County Habitat for Humanity. Their office on the right was closed, but the entrance is open dawn to dusk so that users of the Hockhocking Adena Bikeway can use the restrooms.
It looks like a former depot with the bay window for the agent's office and the bay being offset a little to one side of the building. But the former B&O+NYC+HV depot was closer to downtown. So the ancestry of this building remains a mystery.
This is the view from the wood fence. I could not figure out how to legally get a view of the falls without that center tree obstructing the view.
The next day I was headed to the mill to show my wife what they were selling. There were some thunderstorms in the area the previous night, and I was amazed by how quickly and significantly one rain storm changed the flow level of the river. In the Midwest it takes several days of rains and/or snowmelt  to impact the river flow. And the bigger the river, the bigger the delay before the rain from the watershed reaches the river. The Hocking River is surounded by big (by Midwest standards) hills, and it is obvious that the rain of the entire watershed quickly washes down into the river.

So I walked downstream to get another set of pictures to capture this higher flow of water.

From the previous days photos, we know that there is a "trough" in the middle of the river where the water normally flows. When the river is high, this trough allows more cubic-feet-per-second to pass in the middle. I took this wide angle to try to capture that you could actually see the water "hump" up in the middle of the downstream part to accommodate all of the water that was flowing through the trough.

Compare this downstream view with the one I took above. We saw no water turbulence downstream the previous day but we see plenty when the river is "humping."
I was shocked as to high high the hydraulic jump was given how low this waterfall is. So I took a video to capture that hydraulic jump and the roar of the water.

Then I took another video from downstream to try to capture the "hump" of water in the middle of the river. Notice how it causes a whirlpool that flows upstream along the bank of the river.

I see both the satellite sites I use caught the river when the flow was even lower than the first day I visited.
Google Satellite

Bing Satellite

When I took the picture furthest upstream above, I discovered I still had the ISO for the camera set at the highest level of 6400 when I took the pictures of those photos that were hanging inside the building. The above photo was after I reset the camera for outdoor pictures at ISO 400. This is the picture I took at ISO 6400. At web resolutions, granularity is not an issue. But there is better color contrast at ISO 400.

As I walked back to the van, I retook pictures with the more appropriate ISO of 400. Since it was cloudy enough that the high shutter speed and f-stop of the camera was able to avoid over-exposure with ISO 6400, there is not a lot of difference. But I do this photo dump of the ISO 400 photos anyhow because it does provide some more views of two of my favorite topics --- old buildings and flowing water.

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Rolling Dams (Drowning Machines), Revisited

I first learned of the danger posed by the typical dam design found in many Midwest rivers when I researched the Yorkville, IL dam. Here are two videos that better describe that danger.

A four minute video that demonstrates the danger.

A 24 minutes video that explains the "hydraulic jump" that causes the rolling current that causes the drownings. It is the backwards rolling current generated near the face of the dam that causes these dams to be called "rolling dams." Another thing I learned is that all of the air trapped in the recirculating current makes it foamy and even harder to swim in.

The Kankakee, IL and Wilmington, IL Dams each have Class C hydraulic jump (submerged and rolling).

Carpentersville, IL Dam seems to be designed to create a Case A (stretched out and safe) hydraulic jump. But I still would not want try going over that dam!

Hofmann Dam in Riverside, IL, is an example where an obsolete mill dam has been removed.

Monday, April 24, 2017

US-1 Bypass+B&M over Piscataqua River between NH and ME

(Bridge Hunter, Satellite, Aug 2013 Photo, Webcams (if you click a view, then you can play back a time-lapse video of the view))

The official name is the Sarah Mildred Long Bridge. The original bridge was built in 1940 between Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Kittery, Maine. It was built as part of a bypass to relieve the traffic on US-1 and the 1923 Memorial Bridge. The bridge also supported a Boston & Maine branch to South Berwick, ME. The Guilford Rail System/Pan Am/B&M branch has been cut back and now supports only the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (95 photos). It also carried the traffic of I-95 across the river between 1960 and 1972 when the Piscataqua River Bridge and turnpike extensions were finally opened to carry road traffic high above the river with three lanes in each direction. The I-95 bridge is the steel arch bridge you see in the background of the following street view.

A replacement bridge was scheduled to be opened in Sept. 2017, but the old bridge was scheduled to be closed in Nov. 1, 2016. The old bridge must have been in really bad shape to plan forcing road traffic to use the interstate after the last the last train crossed it on Dec. 9, 2015. It was "carrying two loaded spent nuclear fuel flasks from Kittery Ship Yard en route to Idaho." [Bridge Hunter] But the lift span broke in August, 2016. Rather than spend the estimated $1 million to repair it, they just closed it a couple of months earlier than originally planed. Design of the new bridge started in 2013 and construction started in January, 2015. [MDOT]


Street View of the building of the piers for the replacement bridge.
In addition to a lift span, the old bridge had a retractable steel girder span for the railroad deck that could let recreational boats pass without stopping road traffic. Because the railroad is used once in a blue moon to transport nuclear material to the ship yard, the retractable span that we see on the left side of the street photo below is normally open. That girder span was designed to raise up and then roll back into the truss. I included the "bridgeRare" label because of this span.

Street View of the retractable girder span as well as the lift span.
Now we turn our attention to the replacement bridge. The new bridge appears to use box girder concrete sections. Note the railroad deck has more piers than the road deck needs. But the extra piers are simple column piers.
An artists' view from I-95.
The second bullet point below explains why the lift span does not have two decks. The lift span is effectively designed for "street running" and is shared between the two decks. It is, of course, normally at the road deck level.

Key Bridge Attributes
  • New bridge alignment improves marine navigation by straightening the navigational channel, allowing larger ships to access the port and shipyard.
  • With a larger 56’ vertical clearance in its “resting” position, there will be 68% fewer bridge openings.  In the normal operating, “resting” position, the bridge’s lift span is at its middle level, allowing motor vehicles to cross the river. The new bridge’s movable “hybrid” span lifts up to allow passage of tall vessels and lowers to railroad track level for trains to cross.
  • 200’ tall precast concrete towers will support the 300’ long streamlined structural steel box girder lift span.
  • New bridge layout uses eleven (11) fewer piers than the existing bridge, also improving the gateway span leading into downtown Portsmouth by eliminating an existing median pier. 

The use of one lift span that can carry both road and rail traffic and that can be positioned at three levels --- open, road traffic, and railroad traffic --- also justifies the "bridgeRare" label.

This is the Facebook posting that provided the name so that I could learn about this bridge.

Jim Browne posted
Dinner with a view. [In the case of Jim, the view is the many cranes.]
Justin Classen Sarah Mildred Long bridge I worked there for a year and a half.
Below zooms into the towers and the part of the railroad deck that is not completely obscured by crane barges. I'm sure the lift span is being built offsite and will be floated into place when the towers are ready for it. It looks like the towers are done except for the mechanical enclosure and equipment at the top. It appears from the concept art that the counterweights will be hidden in the towers.
At Facebook resolution

Aban/NS/Southern over Kentucky River west of Versailles, KY

(Bridge HunterHistoric Bridges, Satellite)

"Built 1889 [by Louisville Southern Railway], closed to traffic in November 1985." [BridgeHunter]

Tony Hall posted four pictures with the comment: "Youngs's high bridge near Versailles Kentucky."



Tony Hall   Bluegrass Scenic Railroad ends at the bridge. A company out of Louisville bought it and does bungee jumping from it.

I wonder what they charge to skip the jumping and just walk across the bridge. Whoops, they don't even sell tickets; they run it as a private club. [Kentucky]

Street View from US-62
Studying a Norfolk Southern Map, RJCC (R. J. Corman/Central Kentucky Lines) connects Versailles to NS at Lexington, KY. (The map is 75 million bytes, and it will test the performance of your .pdf reader and computer.)

US-50+I-255 Bridges over Mississippi River near St. Louis, IL

(1944 Bridge Hunter1984+1990 Bridge Hunter, John A. Weeks III, 3D Satellite)

The official name is Jefferson Barracks Bridge. The original truss bridge "was completed in 1944 as a war-time measure to allow the Illinois side better access to the western part of the St. Louis area." [Bridge Hunter comment]

This allowed easier access to the Jefferson Barracks. A 1702 acre parcel of land was established in 1826 as the first permanent military base west of the Mississippi River to protect pioneers of the Louisiana Purchase from the threats of Indians. It was the major training base for the Army Of The West from 1826 through the Civil War. A national cemetery was also created. On June 30, 1946, the army base was decommissioned.Today it is used by the National Guard and Army Reserve,  an expansion of the national cemetery, evidently a VA hospital, and a park and museum. [History, cem, John A. Weeks III]

William A. Shaffer posted
Jefferson Barracks Bridge - St. Louis, MO (5.11.13)
(Photo by William A. Shaffer)
May 1995 flood, Public Domain from Flickr
A new bridge was built next to the old one and then the old one was replaced by a second bridge.

Jefferson Barracks Bridge
AB, search for "jefferson barracks"
Completion Date: 9/30/1983
This was a superstructure fabrication and erection contract for a 4,000' Mississippi River crossing, including a 910' box chord tied arch main span and steel plate girder approaches. This tied arch is one of the largest of its type in the USA.
The old bridge was a toll bridge until the bonds were retired in 1959.

1945 photo from Department of Transportation Collection at the Mo State Archives

Sunday, April 23, 2017

Detroit Avenue over Cuyahoga River in Cleaveland, OH

(Bridge Hunter, Satellite, 3D Satellite)

By LeeG7144 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
The 6 streetcar tracks on the lower deck were abandoned in 1955.

OBLIQUE VIEW - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH
Library of Congress: HAER OHIO,18-CLEV,22--28 (CT)

Eric Mortensen posted
The Buffalo heading up river on the Cuyahoga this afternoon.

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Making Big Propellers

John Abbott posted
Chuck Larkin They're cast bronze, then machined to size. There are some videos of the steps required to make them..
Michael Murray I ran large 5 Axis to machine a prop. at RRNM it was the most boring job I ever had...we could get one blade at a time under the machine bridge....I ran the CVN Carrier prop.
Chance O'Neil You should see submarine props. Way bigger and way less fun to work on. Cool to look at.
Steve Walker Went to Groton, Conn. to meet a mate. Had security clearance, but NO photos of sub props.
[I saw a Science Channel program on make the big subs. They showed an animation with the prop turning. I noticed it had many thin bladse and an exaggerated curve so that it can turn slow and avoid cavitation.]

David O'Neill One of the screws for the Queen Mary is on display in front of a museum in L.A.. according to the sign they were originally balanced to such a high degree they could be rotated with 2 fingers!
[That also speaks well of the construction of the bearing.]
Chuck Larkin commented on the above posting
Chance O'Neil Now imagine some 5"diameter threaded holes in the top of that propeller hub that are about 5and a half inches deep. The problem is that they should have had about 6" deep threads. Now picture a tap in that hole with a 100:1 torque multiplier on it with a cheater pipe long enough to reach a few feet past the edge of the blades. Now picture me and the other poor guy holding that pipe and pushing it around and around all night to tap the threads to the bottom of the hole. Ya. Propeller work is not glamorous.
In the new modern propellers that are milled, or even ground, you can still see each pass of the tool. I guess the key is that they machine along the flow of water across the blade.

I recognize Wartsila as the company that makes the worlds largest diesel engines for big ships.

Whoops, this thumbnail invalidates my conclusion that the machine ripples are OK because they are with the flow of water rather than across it.

6-Mast Sailing Bulk Carrier and B&O Coaling Doc

Steam Engines, Tractors, Trains, & More shared George Lane's post. The post had three pictures and the comment:
Here are some interesting pictures of the Curtis Bay Coal Terminal in Baltimore MD operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The pier was erected in 1900.



The wood dock is long gone, but it appears that this dock is one B&O asset that CSX has not torn up. They maintain a stockpile of coal. (A birds-eye view shows that the southern part is sometimes also full.)

They are actively loading a vessel. Is this a boat or a see-going barge? By the later, I mean will a towboat connect to the stern to push it? It doesn't look big enough to be a boat.