Sunday, December 31, 2023

1926,1940 Bridge of the Gods over Columbia River at Cascade Locks, OR

(Bridge Huntger broke Mar 22, 2023; Historic BridgesSatellite 5,259 photos)

The rehabilitation date of 1940 surprised me. Normally big truss bridge lasted into the second half of the twentieth century before it needed major rehabilitation. But HistoricBridges explains that the bridge was raised 40' (12m) when the 1938 Bonneville Dam was built. The steel girder approach spans were added when the bridge was raised.
Street View, Sep 2021

Terrence Fenton posted four photos with the comment: "Bridge of the Gods in Cascade Locks, OR. One of many bridges across the Columbia River."




HistoricBridges says that "The project [to raise the bridge 40' (12m)] included constructing enormous riveted lifting girders on the piers, at the base of the bridge's main posts. These lifting girders were not removed after the bridge was raised and can still be seen today." I presume the lifting girder is the deep girder at the base of the truss just above the pier.
Jennifer Kimchi, Jun 2022

HisjtoricBridges, Source: Washington State Archives
Before the bridge was raised.

HisjtoricBridges, Source: Washington State Archives
After the bridge was raised.

The 1,858' (566m) long bridge has a main span of 1,131' (345m) and a width of 35 (10.7m)'. It was raised 44' in 1938.
"Strange trivia fact: In September 1927, Charles Lindbergh flew up the gorge from Portland in the "Spirit of St. Louis," passing low over the newly-built Bridge of the Gods. He then turned around and flew under the bridge, before heading back to Portland."

nps_2, Photo: Table Mountain. Creative Commons, BY-SA 4.0, Eric Prado.
There used to be a natural bridge here. "Geologists believe that about 600 to 1,000 years ago a giant landslide from nearby Table Mountain on the north shore of the Columbia River blocked the Gorge and stopped the river’s flow. This natural dam created an inland sea in eastern Oregon, Washington, and into Idaho. Over time, water eroded the dam and created an awesome natural stone bridge. Eventually, this bridge fell, creating the Cascade rapids."

"The Bridge of the Gods collapsed around the 1690s — which coincides with the date of the last Great Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquakes — creating the rocky Cascade Rapids." [CascadeLocks]

This video of the construction also has scenes showing how the river used to flow over the rapids before the Bonneville Dam was built.
9:15 video @ 8:18
The link was from CorbettOregon, which explains the Native American legend that motivated the name of the bridge.

East River "Coastal Resiliency Project" and Manitowoc 4600S4 Ringer in New York, NY

(See below for satellite information.)

Taxpayers are already paying for climate change.

2 of 6 photos posted by Lucibello Heavy Equipment photography with the comment: "Manitowoc 4600S4 ringer setting concrete precast on the east river in NYC as part of the east side coastal resiliency project. This project is intended to protect the city from flooding and rising sea levels. A similar project is slated for lower Manhattan in the near future."
[The Williamsburg Bridge is in the right background.]

[The Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridges are in the left background.]

A "before" view:

Saturday, December 30, 2023

1960s Old and 2022+2023 New Zuari Bridges over Zuari River at Cortalim, Goa, India

Road Bridges: (Satellite)
Railroad Bridge: (Satellite)

"This cable-stayed spans the Zuari River for 640 metres (2,100 feet) with a width of 27 metres (89 feet). The H shaped metal pylons, which supports the wire cables, stand at 125 metres (410 feet) tall....When fully operational there will be four lanes in both directions." [David D via TripAdvisor]
"It’s 640m long with a central span of 360m and end-spans of 140m on either side, making it the 2nd longest cable stayed bridge in India." [TheMetroRailGuy, this web page has three videos.]

The old bridge was an arched concrete box girder bridge, and the new one is two cable stay bridges.
Street View, Oct 2022

williewonker Fickr
[According to a comment, it's the Konkan Railways Bridge and it was built around 1995.]

The railroad bridge is a little upstream of the road bridges.
Street View, Oct 2022

They are going from two lanes to eight lanes.
Street View, Aug 2022

Highway Engineering Discoveries posted
New Zuari Bridge - Cable Bridge
Bridge in India ‧

The north approach contains a 3.18km, 6-lane elevated highway, and the south approach has a 3.2km long elevated highway. "The elevated highway superstructures is of segmental construction with wing segments post tensioned in the lateral direction."

Friday, December 29, 2023

1980 Krk Bridge in Croatia


The total length of the bridge is 1,430m (0.9 miles). [CroatiaWeek]

Krk II and Krk I:
"The span of  the  Krk  I  arch  (390  m) [1280'] exceeds...the largest concrete arch  in  the  world  previously  built  (Gladesville,  Sydney) by 85 m....Arch  segments of Krk  I and  Krk  II (244  m) [800'] bridges were prefabricated, placed  in position using cable-crane and then joined using “wet” joints."

"The longer of the bridge's two arches is the third-longest concrete arch in the world and the longest outside of China, and among the longest arches of any construction." [dbpedia]

Tolls were retired on Jun 15, 2020.
Inhabitants on the islands served by the bridge were already toll excempt. Removing all of the tolls is expected to increase tourist traffic to the four Croatia islands of Krk, Pag, Vir and Ciovo.

HotelKrk, Photo source: Malinska Dubasnica Tourist Board
"67 m [220'] high"

SeeNews, Photo: ARZ
As detailed by ResearchGate, the high winds and salty environment have taken a toll on the concrete. A two year, US$7m rehibilitation was started in 2020.


Highway Engineering Discoveries posted
Krk Bridge ,Croatia

Highway Engineering Discoveries posted
Krk Bridge Croatia

Highway Engineering Discoveries posted

Thursday, December 28, 2023

1848,1987 Roebling D&H Canal Delaware Aqueduct over Delaware River at Lackawaxen, PA

(Historic Bridges; HAERSatellite, 1,386 photos)

HAER PA,52-LACK,1--58 (CT)
58. Perspective from the west bank from the northwest. - Delaware & Hudson Canal, Delaware Aqueduct, Spanning Delaware River, Lackawaxen, Pike County, PA

"Significance: Probably the oldest suspension bridge in the United States that retains its original elements and the earliest extant example of Roebling's engineering genius., The Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior has designated the Delaware and Hudson Canal a National Historic Landmark, and an NHL bronze plaque has been placed on the aqueduct. New York State has also recognized the structure with a roadside historical marker." Before the aqueduct was built, a dam across the river created a slack pool, and locks on both riverbanks were used to get barges down to the river level. [HAER_data, this reference includes a short history of the D&H Canal.]

Street View, Aug 2019

Bob Dover posted
The Delaware Aqueduct crossing the Delaware River from Minisink, New York to Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, is a famous tourist bridge for a few reasons. Dating from 1848, it is the oldest suspension bridge in the United States, which should be reason enough. It is also one of three remaining bridges designed by John Roebling, and was one of the first-ever uses of wire rope suspension technology.
The aqueduct was one of four that Roebling built as part of the Delaware and Hudson (D&H) Canal system. The D&H Canal opened in 1828, and had four locations where boats on the canal needed to cross the river itself. As part of an expansion of the canal in 1848, Roebling constructed these four aqueducts, but not for pedestrian or horse traffic. Instead, each aqueduct was a water-tight trough, large enough to carry boats and suspended high enough above the river so that other boats could still pass underneath.
A more detailed description of the Delaware Aqueduct is included in Chapter 3 of my book, Bridgespotting: A Guide to Bridges that Connect People, Places, and Times. I have also added several photos of it to the Delaware River gallery on

Robert Vogel Photo via HistoricBridges
The most recent rehabilitation, 1987, makes it hard to see the suspension cables because it "restored the original timber design that once held the waters of the canal, although it retains a design that accommodates vehicular traffic....The Delaware and Hudson Canal is the oldest transportation company continuously operating in America." The canal was made obsolete by the Delaware & Hudson Railroad.
HistoricBridges gives this bridge its highest rating of 10 out of 10 for both National and Local significance.

The aqueduct spans 535' (163m).This is the only one of Roeblings four D&H aqueducts that is still standing.

pabook, Derek Ramsey
The clearance under the trough, which holds 2000 tons of water, is 30' (9m). The cables were made from wrought iron, not steel. "These iron cables are what set Roebling’s design apart. During the time when the Delaware Aqueduct was built, suspension bridges, or bridges in which the deck (load-bearing surface) is suspended below support cables, commonly used open link chains. Roebling’s use of wire rope, an attribute now inseparable from major suspension bridges, revolutionized the bridge industry and has helped the Delaware Aqueduct stand the test of time, making it the oldest suspension bridge in the United States....Wire rope suspension bridges, which supported their loads via massive iron cables, offered an efficient, cost-effective solution capable of supporting heavier loads over longer spans. Roebling’s design in specific presented three major advantages over the truss bridges of his competitors: it allowed the river to be crossed in fewer spans, it increased the clearance between the bridge and the water’s surface, and it was much cheaper."
It needed just three piers. (The spans were one of 142' (43.3m) and three of 131' (40m).) A contemporary truss bridge would require four or five piers. Fewer piers not only reduced the cost, but it also reduced the impedance to ice flows and logging rafts. 
["Since the mid-1700s, timber from the valley had been floated down the Delaware to shipyards and industries in Trenton and Philadelphia." [nps_roebling]]
The National Park Service bought the structure in 1980 and rebuilt it to the original specifications. And a concrete roadbed was used to emulate the weight of the water in the trough. A lot of static weight was needed to reduce the impact of moving live loads. The reduced impact restored the stability of the cable system.

"Almost all of the Delaware Aqueduct's existing ironwork — cables, saddles, and suspenders — are the same materials installed when the structure was built. The two suspension cables are made of wrought iron strands, spun on site under the direction of John Roebling in 1847. Each 8 1/2-inch diameter suspension cable carries 2,150 wires bunched into seven strands. Laboratory tests in 1983 concluded that the cable was still "viable;" some of the wires even exceeded Roebling's original specifications."

"Stock prices fluctuated during the early years, but by 1848 the D & H Canal was likely the nation's largest private corporation....In the late 1840s and 1850s, the canal's trunk was deepened to 5, then 6, feet. Its locks were enlarged to 90' x 15', increasing its capacity from 200,000 tons to one million tons of coal annually. Forty- ton capacity boats were gradually replaced by boats of up to 140 tons, which could go directly from the canal to markets up and down the Hudson."

Wednesday, December 27, 2023

1938,2001 Lions Gate Bridge over First Narrows at Vancouver, BC

(Historic BridgesSatellite, 13,261 photos)

Street View, May 2012

Alberta Dunns, Apr 2020

Navy General Board posted
HMCS Warrior passing under the Lion's Gate Bridge in late 1946/ early 1947.
[The description continues with a history of the ship.]

At first glance, I thought this was the same as above. But it is different.
The Warshipologist posted
A picture of HMS Implacable (R86) passing under the Lions Gate Bridge while departing Vancouver around October 18, 1945. She had just delivered POWs from Manila and was heading for Hong Kong for more transportation duties. A picture of the ship alongside in Vancouver can be found a little further down on the feed.

Ed Beauregard commented on the above post
The Vancouver City archives has an excellent collection of warship photos. Here is the U.S.S. Iowa passing under the Lions Gate Bridge July 7th, 1947. I actually have 16 mm film of the Iowa entering harbour, but sadly no 16 mm projector (sold that decades ago) so I never had a chance to digitize the video. Photograph by Walter E. Frost
Bridges Now and Then posted
Vancouver's Lions Gate Bridge, October 19, 1938.
The cables were wrapped in the last month before the bridge opened. Here the three workers are operating a compressed-air-driven rotary machine. Workers were not issued any special clothing, footwear or safety equipment. None of these men is wearing a hard hat or a safety harness to catch him in case he loses his footing. They wore street fedoras or caps, and the man on the left is wearing soft shoes. A Maclean’s magazine article from August 15, 1938, illustrates the mindset of the workers who put their lives on the line daily. Any misstep at such heights could have meant serious injury or death. The reporter said of bridge worker Joe Lepage: “The expanse of space below him meant no more to Joe than the distance from kitchen porch to lawn means to the housewife as she hauls in Monday’s washing from the line.”" (Museum and Archives of North Vancouver)
Kip Wylie: In the 2000 In-depth inspection of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge we removed two sections of the wrapping cable, then probed to oak spikes deep inside the tranverse 8'300 support strands. With this the engineers were able to fiberoptic inspect for corrosion. To wrap our main cable we purchased an old antique 1940's wrapper from a bridge in NYC. That thing was by far the most cantancerous piece of equipment in 35 years of bridge work.
Dave Frieder: The POWER Wrapper was invented by Holton Robinson. He worked closely with David Steinman.
Eddie Gough commented on the above post
The same operation is used 18 years later , wrapping the Mac. Bridge main cable with galvanized wire. the main cable contains 12870 wires, no OSHA back then, 5 men did die during construction.

The bridge was named after two mountain peaks that are visible from the bridge. The sculptures were added to acknowledge the name. [study]
Street View, Apr 2023
"When opened in 1938, the 1550 ft. [472m]  main span was the longest suspension span outside the United States....The total length of the Lions Gate Bridge (including approach spans) is 1517 metres [5154', 0.94 miles)]."
[There is no approach span on the south side because the bridge lands on a river bluff, but there is a long approach span on the north side.]

"This monumental and famous bridge retains its landmark status, despite severe alteration of the design of the bridge through loss of the original stiffening truss. The use of pony truss stiffening was a trademark and key feature of suspension bridges designed by the Canadian firm of Monsarrat and Pratley. In 2000-2001 the entire original stiffening truss system was demolished and replaced with a modern structure, that looks like an extremely shallow deck truss. The loss of original material as well as the replacement of the original design stiffening truss with an unusual design that looks nothing like the original engineer's design is a major alteration to this bridge and severely reduces its historic integrity. Also, another trademark of Monsarrat and Pratley, which was to use unusual paired suspenders with spacers was lost. The bridge still has unusual paired suspenders, but the spacers were not replaced. The spacers gave the bridge an unusual appearance." [HistoricBridges]

[This shows the spacers that were between the paired suspenders.]

The original truss.

Today, you can't see any of the new truss and there are no spacers between the paired suspenders. They also added a third lane by making the lanes narrower. The middle lane is normally reversed to accommodate rush hours. There is a pedestrian+bike lane on both sides.
Street View, Apr 2023

Tuesday, December 26, 2023

1879,2005 Old Appleton Bridge over Apple Creek near Uniontown, MO

(Bridge Hunter broke Mar 22, 2023; Historic BridgesSatellite, 210 photos)

Street View, Sep 2023

nps by cmh2315fl is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
Old Appleton Bridge, Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail (4,900 miles (7,886km) long)
"Listed on the National Register of Historic Places the bridge crossing the Apple Creek was built in 1879 connecting Perry and Cape Girardeau Counties. The only iron bridge of its kind in Missouri still in its original location. But before the bridge gave life to the thriving communities on both sides of the creek, in the late 1790’s the Shawnee Native Americans discovered the Apple Creek and made their home here with one of the largest tribal settlements known as the La Grande Village Sauvage in Perry County. It was during this time that Lewis and Clark documented in their 1804 journal about meeting and trading with the Native Americans on the Apple Creek as they ventured up one Mississippi River’s tributaries."

Historical 1939 photo of bridge from Historic American Building Survey

2 of 24 photos posted by Drew Walters with the comment: "Pictures I took on December 21, 2023 of the 1879 Old Appleton Bridge in Old Appleton, Missouri. This is the oldest bridge I’ve photographed. Located just outside Perryville, the historic bridge was built by H.W. Sebastian & Co. of St. Louis. It was reconstructed in 2005 after being destroyed by a flood in 1982."
David LaBrot: My G-g-g grandfather operated a grist mill back in the 1820’s just to the right of that very bridge.
Drew Walters shared


"Old Appleton Bridge is a historic Pratt Truss Iron Bridge located at Old Appleton, Cape Girardeau County and Perry County, Missouri. It was built in 1879, and consists of a wrought iron, pin-connected, Pratt through truss main span. It rests on limestone block masonry piers. The total length of the bridge is 161 feet [49m]. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009."