Tuesday, November 23, 2021

Z-Mill, Cluster or Sendzimir Mill

It is common for steel rolling mills to have backing rollers in a stand, but a Sendzimir mill has nine backing rollers on each side! This allows the working rolls to exert the pressure needed to cold roll harder metals such as stainless steel without bending the rolls.

"Washington Steel was the first U.S. company to use a Sendzimir Mill to cold-roll stainless steel." [wikipedia]

Of the three diagrams I have seen, this is the only one that doesn't have mistakes that are obvious to me. Note that the backing rolls at each level touch the rolls below but not each other.
Waterbury Farrel Brochure, p4

This diagram incorrectly shows the backing rolls touching each other, but it shows which rolls are driven and the two small work rolls. 
pinterest and LibraryOfManufacturing

The small work rolls allows the rolls to be made with stronger metals such as titanium because the smaller size is more affordable.

Waterbury Farrel Brochure, p4

The rolls are a small fraction of the unit. This is a reversible mill so that means the space between the work rolls (gauge) can be changed between each pass. I'm glad they opened the door to show the rolls in the photograph.
IndiaMart
Waterbury Farrel Corp. Model Zr23-19

hanrm
The work roll has a small diameter and the pass reduction rate is high, up to 60%. Some materials can be rolled into very thin strips without intermediate annealing.

Waterbury Farrel Brochure, p1

9:22 video   At 3:58 they show the rack moving. I assume that controls the gauge. But I have yet to figure out how that works.

And interesting summary of the mill types.
ispatguru

2:37 video


Monday, November 22, 2021

Old Blast Furnaces: 1833 Buckhorn Iron, 1794-1840 Peter Tarr (King's Creek) and 1852-1894 Buckeye

Peter Tarr: (Satellite)
Buckhorn Iron: (I could not determine the location)
Buckeye: (Satellite)
Lagrange: (Satellite)
Mt. Savage: (Satellite)
Mill Creek Furnace: (Satellite)
Illinois: (Satellite)

I'm beginning to move information concerning a blast furnace to their own notes and turn this post into an overview of old blast furnaces. I'm going to try to order them roughly according to the iron belt that ran from New Jersey to Alabama.
I've promoted the Buckhorn and Peter Tarr Furnaces to the top of these notes because Buckhorn has a photo showing what a typical blast furnace looked like when it was operational and the Peter Tarr Furnace was the first iron furnace west of the Alleghenies.

(I also have some notes on old blast furnaces in the other blog. It is going to take a lot of work to rationalize my coverage of old blast furnaces.)

Buckhorn Iron Furnace

Mike Delaney posted two images with the comment:
Buckhorn Iron Furnace remains, Hanging Rock Iron District, SE Ohio. From a trip to the region in Early January 2019. Many of the Early Michigan iron furnaces where of the same basic design. This district in Ohio was a major Iron producer from the 1830's until after the Civil War. Iron ore was mines from Limestone formations and also Bog Iron ore from nearby swamps and Bogs. I think we hit about 17 iron furnace sites on a three day trip. The number of iron smelting furnaces in this district of Ohio and Eastern Kentucky number from 85 to more than 100 depending on the sources of info.  What made this furnace kind of an exciting find was from the mouth of this abandoned furnace came the pig iron that was re-melted in an east coast foundry and cast into the two 11" bore 16,000lb iron Dahlgren Guns mounted on the USS Monitor ironclad that dueled the CSS Virginia(Merrimack) during the civil war. Much of the Unions iron resources came from this district. This one made my day. Found a small piece of pig iron here.  Second photo is the Buckhorn in better days.
Otis Aldridge Jr.: Did you visit Buckeye Furnace State Memorial? [see the "Buckeye Furnace" heading below] It is a complete reproduction including some company buildings.
Mike Delaney: Otis Aldridge Jr. Yes we did. Very well done. The one at the Vesuvius Furnace was as well.
Michael Maitland: How did they load the Monitor guns, presume they had to retract the guns into the turret and then crane load a shell.
Mike Delaney: Michael Maitland The guns retracted into the turret and the gun ports closed to protect the turret crew while loading. They were muzzle loaded.
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[This explains so much about how they were operated. I'm going to have to look for a nearby hill when I visit BF ruins.]

Update: A reader found this furnace in Section 9 of this map and pointed me to this topo map.
1961 Pedro Quadrangle @ 1:24,000

So it is north of the creek and west of the road. It appears to be lost in vegetation from the perspective of a satellite.
Satellite


Peter Tarr Furnace

Rob Lucas posted three photos with the comment: "King's Creek near Weirton,  West Virginia"
Sam Klein shared
Rob Lucas posted again
Kyle McGrogan: I'd love to see the original archaeology on that furnace, as it is small by even 18th Century Virginia frontier furnaces in the eastern Panhandle....!
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[hmdb]

3

Fortunately, I was able to determine the location of the Peter Tarr Furnace. Since it was close to Kings Creek Road, I got my own view of the furnace to show that it is built near a hill.
Street View

Please read the two historical plaques that Rob posted. Much of the Google search results are covered by those plaques.

"The furnace has two tuyeres, the blast entry facing the river. The bellows system was probably located where the road currently lies. The main tapping tuyere is smaller than typically seen and constructed with a rounded arch." [OldIndustry] It sounds like the bellows system was probably water powered.

Peter Tarr was able to produce about 2 tons per day. "Of...interest is the fact that the chimney, or stack, is circular in dimension. Most other furnaces of the period and area had square or rectangular chimneys." [WayMarking]

James Tarr posted the comment:
4 great ,grandfather 
sold the foundry to the Weir Brothers
that was the start of the Weirton Steel Co.

 

Buckeye Furnace

I'm glad I pursued Otis' comment on Mike's post about the Buckeye Furnace because it has the original stack and it is another example of how the stack is built next to a hill so that a level building can be used to house the loading of the furnace. Like Buckhorn Iron, this furnace is also in Ohio's Hanging Rock Iron Region. "While several iron furnaces remain, Buckeye’s reconstructed furnace is the only one that, except for the trees that have grown since closing, is much as it was when it was operating." [OhioHistory]

Something went wrong with Street View and I could not get a closer view of this side. This makes me appreciate what a good job Street View normally does. This view shows that this furnace was also built near a hillside so that a level building could be built to load the furnace.
Street View


AbandonedOnline
"The furnace, with an 11-foot bosh, initially produced 7½ tons of iron per day, operating 42 weeks out of the year. 3 The stack was later raised to 34-feet in height to increase daily output to 12 tons of iron per day."
[This page also has photos of the preserved boiler and drone exterior view photos. And it has some photos of a different Buckhorn Furnace.]

Another view of the upper loading building and the lower casting building.
TouringOhio

LaGrange Furnace

Abandoned posted two photos with the comment:
The LaGrange Furnace in Lawrence County, Ohio is one of many 1800s-era blast furnaces that produced pig iron, which was used to build armaments for the Civil War, hulls for the Monitor and Merrimac ships, kettles and pots, tools, and wagon wheels, among many other uses. The LaGrange Furnace was constructed in 1836 and had a daily capacity of seven tons of pig iron per day. It last operated in 1856 because of the scarcity of one of its ingredients: timber.
Check out more photos of LaGrange Furnace at https://abandonedonline.net/location/pig-iron-furnaces/...
Robert McClain: Wide swathes of Lawrence and adjacent counties were all but deforested because of the appetite furnaces had for charcoal.

Abandoned shared with the comment: "Before modern-day steel mills, we had these simpler pig iron blast furnaces. My hometown is centered in the Hanging Rock Iron Region and was once the center of the iron production industry for the United States. It's off of route 93 at 38.56930259758824, -82.67699804144695."
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"LaGrange Furnace is built against a short hill. If you climb the hill behind the stack, you will find the evidence of the railroad that passed through the area, shipping the iron back to Ironton." [OldIndustry]


Mount Savage

Richard Peoples posted three photos with the comment: "On KY State Route 773 in Denton, KY. There are a few of these around this area of eastern KY, but none in as good condition as this one. Almost looks like it could resume making iron with a little rehab work ."
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[Not only is it built near a hill, it is built a little way into the hill.]

3, cropped

Dennis DeBruler commented on Richard's post
I finally found it.
https://www.google.com/.../@38.2666599,-82.../data=!3m1!1e3

Dennis DeBruler commented on Richard's post
Using Google Earth so that I can get an image without the leaves.

Dennis DeBruler commented on Richard's post
HAER calls this the Mount Savage Iron Furnace. This is one of seven photos. This was the photo that allowed me to find the furnace in the trees of the satellite image.
HAER KY,22-GRAY.V,1-
https://www.loc.gov/item/ky0378/

Dennis DeBruler commented on Richard's post
Your second photo confirms that this furnace was built next to a hill. I've learned that they used a hill so that they could put a covered walkway to the top of the furnace to make it easier to dump material into the furnace. This image is one of the better depictions I've seen of how these old furnaces were used.
Artistic rendering by Richard Schlecht, National Park Service via 30daysOfKentuckyArchaeology.
Richard Peoples: Dennis DeBruler All the other ones down here are also built against hills.

Initially, I could not find it on a satellite image. So I did a Google search to see if I could find an address. I did not find an address, but I finally found this furnace. And I found another furnace in eastern Kentucky.
1860-1884 Boone Furnace HAER, the only photo

Phillip Claxon posted two photos with a silly comment.
Richard Peoples: KY Route 773, Denton, KY. Not too far from where I live in Ashland.
Cory James: Thats a MacIntyre furnace . We have a huge one here in the Adirondacks in an abandoned town called tahaws
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2

I knew the iron ore belt that went from Massachusetts to Alabama went through Kentucky. But I did not know that it reached over into Illinois.
Randall Smith commented on Phillip's post
Here's one in Hardin County, IL.


Mill Creek Furnace near Youngstown, OH


Greg Cadman posted, cropped
Youngstown Ohio. Early iron

Digitally Zoomed

This one was built into the side of the hill
Street View


1840-1850 & 1856-1861 & 1879-1880 Illinois Furnace

High resolution photographs of the interpretive plaques mounted by the furnace: Illinois Iron Furnace and Fueling The Furnace.

Randall Smith commented on a post
Here's one in Hardin County, IL.
I didn't know that the iron ore belt that goes through Kentucky spilled over into Illinois.
https://www.google.com/.../data=!3m8!1e2!3m6...

Steve Conro Photo via LandmarkHunter
The Illinois Iron Furnace is the only remaining iron furnace structure in the state of Illinois. Iron was manufactured at the Illinois Furnace by the charcoal blast method. The furnace was built on a dry laid limestone foundation. The exterior of the furnace was manufactured of large limestone blocks quarried near the town of Cave-In-Rock. The interior wall, or lining, was constructed of firebrick from Pennsylvania. The space between the interior and exterior walls was filled with sandstone. Wrought iron binders were placed through the stonework and tightened to secure the walls. All of the stonework was dry laid to allow for expansion when the furnace was in blast.
Posted to the National Register of Historic Places on March 7, 1973, Reference number 73000704
[It is tagged as built in 1837, but IllinoisOzarks indicates that construction started in 1839 and that it was "blown in" in 1840.]

When I zoomed out, I realized that Hogthief Creek was a branch off Big Creek. The furnace is indeed labelled "Illinois Furnace."  In addition to iron ore, trees and limestone were available in the area. 
1916 Equality and Golconda Quads @ 1:62,500

"The blast furnace resembled a cut-off pyramid, twenty-six feet square at the base, thirty-two feet high, and twenty-two feet square at the top. Nearby Big Creek was dammed and a millstream dug to the furnace to operate the bellows." It was a short ox-cart trip to the main transportation artery in the Midwest, the Ohio River. The furnace operated from 1840-1850. In 1856, new ownership enlarged it and added a blast to it. This company ran until 1861. It is interesting that it did not run during the Civil War because there as a big demand for iron during the war. Another owner tried running it during 1879-80. But by then all of the nearby timber had been consumed and they had to ship in coke to burn in the furnace. The poor grade of the iron ore and the extra cost of shipping in coke made this operation unprofitable. There was a town here to support the workmen, and by 1846 it had its own post office. All remnants of the town is gone. [Todd Carr via IllinoisOzarks] (The reason it was closed during the war was a lack of manpower. "It came to life, again, in 1872 though was used only sporadically until 1883." The current structure was built in 1967. The original furnace was partially dismantled in the 1930s to supply rock for bridge abutments. [hmdg])

There was also a Martha B. Furnace, but good luck trying to follow the directions in a comment on this photo.

Unspecified

Giles Gilley posted
Old iron ore furnace in Va. We have several still standing



Sunday, November 21, 2021

Parmelee and Santa Fe through passenger cars to eastern railroads

Chicago had six major train stations. All the information in these notes comes from the comments on a post that was effectively asking: how did passengers get between Santa Fe (Dearborn Station) and Pennsy (Union Station)? If the passengers were in coach, they used their legs. Parmalee had a set of limousines and provided a transfer service between the stations to reduce the distance that passengers would have to walk.
Jack Steen commented
 Parmelee adverts appear in each and every timetable from each railroad that entered Chicago back in the day ! (Here, at Central Station - 1950s)
[And I've read that a ticket for Parmelee was sometimes included with your tickets to a Western and an Eastern railroad.]

The question really concerned passengers in through Pullman sleepers where the railroad would have to switch the car from one station to another. A comment by Andrew Townsend also indicated that through baggage/mail cars would also have to be switched between stations.

Harold J. Krewer provided a copy of the following diagram with the comment:
There was a physical connection between the C&WI tracks to Dearborn Station and the PRR/CUSCo. tracks into Union at the 21st St. interlocking.
Even after Amtrak started, they used the former Santa Fe coach yard and engine facility for several years until the former PRR coach yard and diesel shop had been sufficiently rehabbed to move all work there. All Amtrak trains using the Santa Fe facility had to use that connection.
Here is a 1948 PRR map of 21st St.:
DeBruler

Comments on Harold's diagram comment

Bob Lalich added:
Interchange of passenger cars between ATSF and PRR was accomplished at 21st St, as mentioned above. There was a connection between NYC and ATSF south of 18th St for such interchange. Connecting between ATSF and B&O was more complicated. I don't know the exact route but it had to have been roundabout because there was no simple connection between Grand Central and Dearborn, or the respective coach yards.

Dennis DeBruler commented on Bob's comment
Since the C&WI and RI+NYC were grade separated at their crossing, I wondered where that connector was. This map is at 50%, and it shows that the connector to RI+NYC was along Archer Ave. The 21st connection to the Pennsy is at the top of this excerpt.

Dennis DeBruler commented on Bob's comment
The map at 100%.

Dennis DeBruler commented on Bob's comment
This connector turned out to be a good test of the accuracy of topo maps. The 1929 and 1953 maps did not show it. But the 1963 map does show it.

Dennis DeBruler commented on Bob's comment
This 1938 aerial shows that the balloon track was added later and cut down the size of the Grape Yard. It appears the connector crossed Wentworth at grade level. So it would have had a steep grade to get up to the RI+NYC tracks. But that grade should have been no problem for one or two passenger train cars.

Dennis DeBruler commented on Bob's comment
Actually, the grade is not too bad because Wentworth goes down here to clear the overpass.


Saturday, November 20, 2021

CSX/C&O James River Viaduct and Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, VA

(Bridge Hunter; Satellite, this is the western side; Satellite, on the eastern side it follows Dock Street to the Fulton Yard)

This is the west end of the C&O viaduct along the north side of the James River and I included the Tredegar Iron Works buildings which now house the American Civil War Museum. The 9th Street Bridge is in the background.
Street View

Stanley Short posted
Westbound Chesapeake & Ohio manifest No. 91 is at the west end of the James River Viaduct in Richmond, VA on May 15, 1983, led by GP30 No. 3024. It is taken from the old Lee Bridge (U.S. 1), which has since been replaced. Thankfully, it is still possible to shoot from the new bridge. That said, the scene has changed dramatically. The Federal Reserve Bank in the upper left and the James Monroe Building, to its right, remain. The brick building on the left is the old Tredegar Iron Works, which predates the Civil War. It has since been restored as a museum. The area in the lower center and right of the image is now a beautiful public park, with plenty of parking. The smoke stacks are gone, and much of the center and background are occupied by high rise buildings. Photo by Stan Short.

J.B. Rail Photog shared

Dennis DeBruler commented on J.B.'s share
I knew CSX/C&O was the top level of the triple crossing. Now I better understand how it got so high.
CSX/Seaboard Air Line is the middle level and NS/Southern is the ground level.

Looking East from the 9th Street Bridge. The I-95 Bridge is in the background.
Street View

Looking West from a I-95 ramp.  The Triple Crossing is along the right side. I caught a MoW truck on the CSX/SAL route.
Street View

Looking East from another I-95 ramp. The tracks curving under the bridge is the James River Viaduct. The tracks continuing along the flood wall go to the Main Street Station. The canal is a topic for another day.
Street View

Once we get east of the jog in the flood wall, I can use Dock Street to get views of the viaduct, which is good because there are no more road bridges across the river. In the foreground below is the route to the Main Street Station and behind it is the route that continues along the river shore. Note the steel door that would close the hole in the flood wall that allows Dock Street to go through the wall.
Street View

But of particular interest is the spindly trestle under the current trestle. The spindly trestle is obviously now a trestle to nowhere. I wrote a couple of theories as to the purpose of that trestle. But I have deleted them because I agree with PRJ's comment: "The under-trestle looks like protection for the bike/walking trail from potential falling debris (spikes, track bolts, etc) from the trestle." If you look at the following street views, the spindly trestle exists only where the trail is below the railroad trestle.
Street View

This is the same location as above, but looking Southeast to show more of the spindly trestle under the current trestle.
Street View

Looking Northwest from where Dock Street leaves the side of the James River Viaduct. 
Street View

The spindly trestle ends as Dock Street and the trail leave the James River Viaduct.
Street View

The James River Viaduct gradually becomes lower to get back to ground level. I picked this sample of the descending viaduct to catch a movable bridge across the canal for the NS/Southern route.
Street View

The viaduct ends at Nicholson Street where the tracks use an embankment.
Satellite

Stanley Short posted
We are on CSX's former-C&O James River Viaduct at Rivanna Junction in Richmond, VA on March 6, 1994. Two SD40-2's have brought a unit coal train down the Rivanna Subdivision and is waiting for a fresh crew to take the train to Newport News. Rivanna Junction interlocking connects the Rivanna, Piedmont and Peninsula Subdivisions. Photo by Stan Short.

Randall Hampton shared

Dennis DeBruler commented on Randall's share
And the train is on the top level of the triple crossing that is on the other side of I-95..

Stanley Short posted
An eastbound CSX unit grain train rolls down the James River Viaduct in Richmond, VA on Nov. 23, 1996 with two SD40-2's bracketing an SD50. We are standing on the bridge abutment for the old Atlantic Coast Line bridge into Richmond. This area is now a city park and easily accessible. The tall building on the left houses the Richmond Federal Reserve Bank. Photo by Stan Short.

Randall Hampton shared
E.V. Welton: Did the line run through a tunnel through downtown?
Randall Hampton: No, there's been some grading work done for the highway. The only tunnel I've heard about in Richmond is on the east side of town, abandoned. The city was quite old when the railroads arrived, so there was a lot of street running in the early days, and single tracks in grassy medians. It took a lot of time and money to get everything out of the street and double track the most important lines.


That abutment is now a free climbing wall.
Andrew Blake, Sep 2020